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Poland was overrun in less than one month, Denmark and Norway in two months, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg and France in six weeks. After the fall of France in June only Great Britain stood firm. Hitler turned to the Balkans and North Africa where his Italian allies had suffered defeats, his armies rapidly overrunning Greece, Yugoslavia, the island of Crete and driving the British from Cyrenaica.
The crucial decision of his career, the invasion of Soviet Russia on June 22, , was rationalized by the idea that its destruction would prevent Great Britain from continuing the war with any prospect of success.
He was convinced that once he kicked the door in, as he told Jodl q. The war against Russia was to be an anti-Bolshivek crusade, a war of annihilation in which the fate of European Jewry would finally be sealed. At first the German armies carried all before them, overrunning vast territories, overwhelming the Red Army, encircling Leningrad and reaching within striking distance of Moscow.
But the Soviet Union did not collapse as expected and Hitler, instead of concentrating his attack on Moscow, ordered a pincer movement around Kiev to seize the Ukraine, increasingly procrastinating and changing his mind about objectives. The disaster before Moscow in December led him to dismiss his Commander-in-Chief von Brauchitsch, and many other key commanders who sought permission for tactical withdrawals, including Guderian, Bock, Hoepner, von Rundstedt and Leeb, found themselves cashiered.
Hitler now assumed personal control of all military operations, refusing to listen to advice, disregarding unpalatable facts and rejecting everything that did not fit into his preconceived picture of reality.
His neglect of the Mediterranean theatre and the Middle East, the failure of the Italians, the entry of the United States into the war, and above all the stubborn determination of the Russians, pushed Hitler on to the defensive. From the winter of the writing was on the wall but Hitler refused to countenance military defeat, believing that implacable will and the rigid refusal to abandon positions could make up for inferior resources and the lack of a sound overall strategy.
Convinced that his own General Staff was weak and indecisive, if not openly treacherous, Hitler became more prone to outbursts of blind, hysterical fury towards his generals, when he did not retreat into bouts of misanthropic brooding. His health, too, deteriorated under the impact of the drugs prescribed by his quack physician, Dr.
The Allied invasion of Normandy followed on June 6, and soon a million Allied troops were driving the German armies eastwards, while from the opposite direction the Soviet forces advanced relentlessly on the Reich. The total mobilization of the German war economy under Albert Speer and the energetic propaganda efforts of Joseph Goebbels to rouse the fighting spirit of the German people were impotent to change the fact that the Third Reich lacked the resources equal to a struggle against the world alliance which Hitler himself had provoked.
Allied bombing began to have a telling effect on German industrial production and to undermine the morale of the population. The plot failed and Hitler took implacable vengeance on the conspirators, watching with satisfaction a film of the grisly executions carried out on his orders. As the Red Army approached Berlin and the Anglo-Americans reached the Elbe, on 19 March Hitler ordered the destruction of what remained of German industry, communications and transport systems.
He was resolved that, if he did not survive, Germany too should be destroyed. On April 29, , he married his mistress Eva Braun and dictated his final political testament, concluding with the same monotonous, obsessive fixation that had guided his career from the beginning: The following day Hitler committed suicide, shooting himself through the mouth with a pistol.
His body was carried into the garden of the Reich Chancellery by aides, covered with petrol and burned along with that of Eva Braun. This final, macabre act of self-destruction appropriately symbolized the career of a political leader whose main legacy to Europe was the ruin of its civilization and the senseless sacrifice of human life for the sake of power and his own commitment to the bestial nonsense of National Socialist race mythology.
You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Hitler as a baby. Hitler during World War 1 c. Hitler and President von Hindenburg Hitler after an SS rally in Berlin. Hitler showing the Nazi salute. US Army newspaper announcing Hitlers death Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fifty percent of the total mass of the atmosphere is located in the lower 5.
Nearly all atmospheric water vapor or moisture is found in the troposphere, so it is the layer where most of Earth's weather takes place. It has basically all the weather-associated cloud genus types generated by active wind circulation, although very tall cumulonimbus thunder clouds can penetrate the tropopause from below and rise into the lower part of the stratosphere. Most conventional aviation activity takes place in the troposphere, and it is the only layer that can be accessed by propeller-driven aircraft.
Within the five principal layers that are largely determined by temperature, several secondary layers may be distinguished by other properties:. The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined by the International Standard Atmosphere as pascals This is sometimes referred to as a unit of standard atmospheres atm. Total atmospheric mass is 5. Atmospheric pressure is the total weight of the air above unit area at the point where the pressure is measured.
Thus air pressure varies with location and weather. If the entire mass of the atmosphere had a uniform density from sea level, it would terminate abruptly at an altitude of 8. It actually decreases exponentially with altitude, dropping by half every 5. However, the atmosphere is more accurately modeled with a customized equation for each layer that takes gradients of temperature, molecular composition, solar radiation and gravity into account.
In summary, the mass of Earth's atmosphere is distributed approximately as follows: By comparison, the summit of Mt. Meteors begin to glow in this region, though the larger ones may not burn up until they penetrate more deeply. The division of the atmosphere into layers mostly by reference to temperature is discussed above. Because in an ideal gas of constant composition the speed of sound depends only on temperature and not on the gas pressure or density, the speed of sound in the atmosphere with altitude takes on the form of the complicated temperature profile see illustration to the right , and does not mirror altitudinal changes in density or pressure.
The density of air at sea level is about 1. Density is not measured directly but is calculated from measurements of temperature, pressure and humidity using the equation of state for air a form of the ideal gas law. Atmospheric density decreases as the altitude increases. This variation can be approximately modeled using the barometric formula. More sophisticated models are used to predict orbital decay of satellites.
The mean mass of water vapor is estimated as 1. Solar radiation or sunlight is the energy Earth receives from the Sun. Earth also emits radiation back into space, but at longer wavelengths that we cannot see.
Part of the incoming and emitted radiation is absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere. In May , glints of light, seen as twinkling from an orbiting satellite a million miles away, were found to be reflected light from ice crystals in the atmosphere. When light passes through Earth's atmosphere, photons interact with it through scattering. If the light does not interact with the atmosphere, it is called direct radiation and is what you see if you were to look directly at the Sun.
Indirect radiation is light that has been scattered in the atmosphere. For example, on an overcast day when you cannot see your shadow there is no direct radiation reaching you, it has all been scattered.
As another example, due to a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering , shorter blue wavelengths scatter more easily than longer red wavelengths. This is why the sky looks blue; you are seeing scattered blue light.
This is also why sunsets are red. Because the Sun is close to the horizon, the Sun's rays pass through more atmosphere than normal to reach your eye. Much of the blue light has been scattered out, leaving the red light in a sunset. Different molecules absorb different wavelengths of radiation.
For example, O 2 and O 3 absorb almost all wavelengths shorter than nanometers. When a molecule absorbs a photon, it increases the energy of the molecule. This heats the atmosphere, but the atmosphere also cools by emitting radiation, as discussed below. The combined absorption spectra of the gases in the atmosphere leave "windows" of low opacity , allowing the transmission of only certain bands of light. There are also infrared and radio windows that transmit some infrared and radio waves at longer wavelengths.
For example, the radio window runs from about one centimeter to about eleven-meter waves. Emission is the opposite of absorption, it is when an object emits radiation. Objects tend to emit amounts and wavelengths of radiation depending on their " black body " emission curves, therefore hotter objects tend to emit more radiation, with shorter wavelengths.
Colder objects emit less radiation, with longer wavelengths. Because of its temperature, the atmosphere emits infrared radiation. For example, on clear nights Earth's surface cools down faster than on cloudy nights. This is because clouds H 2 O are strong absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation. This is also why it becomes colder at night at higher elevations.
The greenhouse effect is directly related to this absorption and emission effect. Some gases in the atmosphere absorb and emit infrared radiation, but do not interact with sunlight in the visible spectrum. Common examples of these are CO 2 and H 2 O. The refractive index of air is close to, but just greater than 1. Systematic variations in refractive index can lead to the bending of light rays over long optical paths.
One example is that, under some circumstances, observers onboard ships can see other vessels just over the horizon because light is refracted in the same direction as the curvature of Earth's surface. The refractive index of air depends on temperature, giving rise to refraction effects when the temperature gradient is large. An example of such effects is the mirage. Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air through the troposphere, and the means with ocean circulation by which heat is distributed around Earth.
The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic structure remains fairly constant because it is determined by Earth's rotation rate and the difference in solar radiation between the equator and poles. The first atmosphere consisted of gases in the solar nebula , primarily hydrogen.
There were probably simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn , notably water vapor, methane and ammonia. Outgassing from volcanism , supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids , produced the next atmosphere, consisting largely of nitrogen plus carbon dioxide and inert gases. Water-related sediments have been found that date from as early as 3. The influence of life has to be taken into account rather soon in the history of the atmosphere, because hints of early life-forms appear as early as 3.
The geological record however shows a continuous relatively warm surface during the complete early temperature record of Earth — with the exception of one cold glacial phase about 2. In the late Archean Eon an oxygen-containing atmosphere began to develop, apparently produced by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria see Great Oxygenation Event , which have been found as stromatolite fossils from 2.
The early basic carbon isotopy isotope ratio proportions strongly suggests conditions similar to the current, and that the fundamental features of the carbon cycle became established as early as 4 billion years ago. Ancient sediments in the Gabon dating from between about 2, and 2, million years ago provide a record of Earth's dynamic oxygenation evolution.
These fluctuations in oxygenation were likely driven by the Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion. The constant re-arrangement of continents by plate tectonics influences the long-term evolution of the atmosphere by transferring carbon dioxide to and from large continental carbonate stores. Free oxygen did not exist in the atmosphere until about 2.
Before this time, any oxygen produced by photosynthesis was consumed by oxidation of reduced materials, notably iron. Molecules of free oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the rate of production of oxygen began to exceed the availability of reducing materials that removed oxygen.
This point signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. Two main processes govern changes in the atmosphere: Plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere , releasing oxygen. Breakdown of pyrite and volcanic eruptions release sulfur into the atmosphere, which oxidizes and hence reduces the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.
However, volcanic eruptions also release carbon dioxide, which plants can convert to oxygen. The exact cause of the variation of the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere is not known.
Periods with much oxygen in the atmosphere are associated with rapid development of animals. Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals , particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to organisms.
The scientific consensus is that the anthropogenic greenhouse gases currently accumulating in the atmosphere are the main cause of global warming. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Air disambiguation. It is not to be confused with Air quality. Atmospheric temperature and Speed of sound. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. History of Earth and Paleoclimatology. Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving Earth a blue halo when seen from space.
The geomagnetic storms cause beautiful displays of aurora across the atmosphere. Limb view, of Earth's atmosphere. Colors roughly denote the layers of the atmosphere. This image shows the Moon at the centre, with the limb of Earth near the bottom transitioning into the orange-colored troposphere. The troposphere ends abruptly at the tropopause, which appears in the image as the sharp boundary between the orange- and blue-colored atmosphere.
The silvery-blue noctilucent clouds extend far above Earth's troposphere. Earth's atmosphere backlit by the Sun in an eclipse observed from deep space onboard Apollo 12 in Atmosphere portal Environment portal.
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