Female genital mutilation
Serour, "The issue of reinfibulation" , International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics , 2 , May , 93— An Interagency Statement , Geneva: Donaldson James, Susan 13 December Izett, Susan; Toubia, Nahid. Pregnancy Unintended pregnancy Gravidity and parity Obstetrics Antenatal care Adolescent pregnancy Complications of pregnancy Hyperemesis gravidarum Ectopic pregnancy Miscarriage Obstetrical bleeding Gestational diabetes Hypertension Preeclampsia Eclampsia Childbirth Midwifery Preterm birth Multiple births Oxytocin Obstructed labor Cesarian section Retained placenta Obstetrical fistulae Vesicovaginal fistula Rectovaginal fistula Episiotomy husband stitch Postpartum care Maternal deaths Perinatal mortality Stillbirths Abortion Mother-to-child transmission Sterilization Compulsory sterilization. Back to top Home News U.
Danielle Lloyd reveals full extent of online trolling ordeal which forced her to get fillers and left her 'depressed' by abuse Beaming Jennifer Garner touches down in LA with daughter Violet, Africa , Asia , Middle East , and within communities from these areas . For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. The opening is larger in women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue. Days after birth to puberty .
The highest concentrations among the 15—49 age group are in Somalia 98 percent , Guinea 97 percent , Djibouti 93 percent , Egypt 91 percent and Sierra Leone 90 percent. The prevalence rate for the 0—11 group in Indonesia is 49 percent Prevalence figures for the 15—19 age group and younger show a downward trend. In Somalia and Sudan the situation was reversed: FGM is not invariably a rite of passage between childhood and adulthood, but is often performed on much younger children.
In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five. In Kenya, for example, the Kisi cut around age 10 and the Kamba at A country's national prevalence often reflects a high sub-national prevalence among certain ethnicities, rather than a widespread practice.
For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. Dahabo Musa, a Somali woman, described infibulation in a poem as the "three feminine sorrows": Like FGM, footbinding was carried out on young girls, nearly universal where practised, tied to ideas about honour, chastity and appropriate marriage, and "supported and transmitted" by women.
FGM practitioners see the procedures as marking not only ethnic boundaries but also gender difference. According to this view, male circumcision defeminizes men while FGM demasculinizes women. African female symbolism revolves instead around the concept of the womb. In communities where infibulation is common, there is a preference for women's genitals to be smooth, dry and without odour, and both women and men may find the natural vulva repulsive. Common reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys are social acceptance, religion, hygiene, preservation of virginity, marriageability and enhancement of male sexual pleasure.
In Sudan in , 42 percent of women who had heard of FGM said the practice should continue. Against the argument that women willingly choose FGM for their daughters, UNICEF calls the practice a "self-enforcing social convention" to which families feel they must conform to avoid uncut daughters facing social exclusion.
The Zabarma girls would respond Ya, mutmura! A mutmara was a storage pit for grain that was continually opened and closed, like an infibulated woman. But despite throwing the insult back, the Zabarma girls would ask their mothers, "What's the matter?
Don't we have razor blades like the Arabs? Because of poor access to information, and because circumcisers downplay the causal connection, women may not associate the health consequences with the procedure. When informed of the causal relationship between FGM and ill health, Mackie wrote, the women broke down and wept. He argued that surveys taken before and after this sharing of information would show very different levels of support for FGM. There is no mention of FGM in the Bible.
A UNICEF report identified 17 African countries in which at least 10 percent of Christian women and girls aged 15 to 49 had undergone FGM; in Niger 55 percent of Christian women and girls had experienced it, compared with two percent of their Muslim counterparts.
Judaism requires male circumcision, but does not allow FGM. The practice's origins are unknown, but its east-west, north-south distribution in Africa meets in Sudan. Gerry Mackie has suggested that infibulation began there with the Meroite civilization c. The spell was found on the sarcophagus of Sit-hedjhotep, now in the Egyptian Museum , and dates to Egypt's Middle Kingdom. O'Rourke argues that ' m't probably refers instead to a menstruating woman. The examination of mummies has shown no evidence of FGM.
Citing the Australian pathologist Grafton Elliot Smith , who examined hundreds of mummies in the early 20th century, Knight writes that the genital area may resemble Type III because during mummification the skin of the outer labia was pulled toward the anus to cover the pudendal cleft , possibly to prevent sexual violation.
It was similarly not possible to determine whether Types I or II had been performed, because soft tissues had deteriorated or been removed by the embalmers. The Greek geographer Strabo c. The surgery is performed in this way: Have the girl sit on a chair while a muscled young man standing behind her places his arms below the girl's thighs.
Have him separate and steady her legs and whole body. Standing in front and taking hold of the clitoris with a broad-mouthed forceps in his left hand, the surgeon stretches it outward, while with the right hand, he cuts it off at the point next to the pincers of the forceps.
It is proper to let a length remain from that cut off, about the size of the membrane that's between the nostrils, so as to take away the excess material only; as I have said, the part to be removed is at that point just above the pincers of the forceps. Because the clitoris is a skinlike structure and stretches out excessively, do not cut off too much, as a urinary fistula may result from cutting such large growths too deeply.
The genital area was then cleaned with a sponge, frankincense powder and wine or cold water, and wrapped in linen bandages dipped in vinegar, until the seventh day when calamine , rose petals, date pits or a "genital powder made from baked clay" might be applied. Whatever the practice's origins, infibulation became linked to slavery. Thus, Mackie argues, a "practice associated with shameful female slavery came to stand for honor".
Gynaecologists in 19th-century Europe and the United States removed the clitoris to treat insanity and masturbation. Mary's Hospital , believed that masturbation, or "unnatural irritation" of the clitoris, caused hysteria , spinal irritation, fits, idiocy, mania and death. Marion Sims followed Brown's work and in slit the neck of a woman's uterus and amputated her clitoris, "for the relief of the nervous or hysterical condition as recommended by Baker Brown".
Later in the 19th century, A. Bloch, a surgeon in New Orleans, removed the clitoris of a two-year-old girl who was reportedly masturbating. From until , he performed "love surgery" by cutting women's pubococcygeus muscle , repositioning the vagina and urethra, and removing the clitoral hood, thereby making their genital area more appropriate, in his view, for intercourse in the missionary position.
Little knives in their sheaths That they may fight with the church, The time has come. Elders of the church When Kenyatta comes You will be given women's clothes And you will have to cook him his food.
An important ethnic marker, the practice was known by the Kikuyu , the country's main ethnic group, as irua for both girls and boys. It involved excision Type II for girls and removal of the foreskin for boys. Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts.
Jomo Kenyatta , general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association and later Kenya's first prime minister, wrote in that, for the Kikuyu, the institution of FGM was the " conditio sine qua non of the whole teaching of tribal law, religion and morality".
No proper Kikuyu man or woman would marry or have sexual relations with someone who was not circumcised. A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation.
Her age and place within tribal history was traced to that day, and the group of girls with whom she was cut was named according to current events, an oral tradition that allowed the Kikuyu to track people and events going back hundreds of years. The CSM announced that Africans practising it would be excommunicated, which resulted in hundreds leaving or being expelled.
In the Kenya Missionary Council began referring to FGM as the "sexual mutilation of women", rather than circumcision, and a person's stance toward the practice became a test of loyalty, either to the Christian churches or to the Kikuyu Central Association. Edward Grigg , the governor of Kenya , told the British Colonial Office that the killer, who was never identified, had tried to circumcise her.
Over the next three years, thousands of girls cut each other's genitals with razor blades as a symbol of defiance. The movement came to be known as Ngaitana "I will circumcise myself" , because to avoid naming their friends the girls said they had cut themselves.
Historian Lynn Thomas described the episode as significant in the history of FGM because it made clear that its victims were also its perpetrators. Scottish missionaries require Kikuyu Christians to take an oath against FGM; most leave to form their own churches.
Egypt bans infibulation in state-run hospitals; allows partial clitoridectomy if parents request it. Saadawi's The Naked Face of Women describes her own circumcision. United Nations International Women's Year. Fran Hosken publishes The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , the first to estimate global figures.
Robin Morgan and Gloria Steinem call it "female genital mutilation" in Ms magazine. French Association of Anthropologists publishes statement that "a certain feminism resuscitates today the moralistic arrogance of yesterday's colonialism. Circumcision and its Consequences. Circumcision and Infibulation of Women in Africa.
Infibulation was banned there in , but the law was unpopular and barely enforced. Women in the Arab World , which described her own clitoridectomy when she was six years old:. I did not know what they had cut off from my body, and I did not try to find out.
I just wept, and called out to my mother for help. But the worst shock of all was when I looked around and found her standing by my side. Yes, it was her, I could not be mistaken, in flesh and blood, right in the midst of these strangers, talking to them and smiling at them, as though they had not participated in slaughtering her daughter just a few moments ago. In Rose Oldfield Hayes, an American social scientist, became the first female academic to publish a detailed account of FGM, aided by her ability to discuss it directly with women in Sudan.
Her article in American Ethnologist called it "female genital mutilation", rather than female circumcision, and brought it to wider academic attention.
Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , the first to offer global figures. She estimated that ,, women in 20 African countries had experienced FGM. The conference listed FGM as a form of violence against women , marking it as a human-rights violation, rather than a medical issue. Immigration spread the practice to Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America, all of which outlawed it entirely or restricted it to consenting adults. In the United States an estimated , women and girls had experienced FGM or were at risk as of In addition, 24 states have legislation banning FGM.
Canada recognized FGM as a form of persecution in July , when it granted refugee status to Khadra Hassan Farah, who had fled Somalia to avoid her daughter being cut. Canadian officials have expressed concern that a few thousand Canadian girls are at risk of "vacation cutting", whereby girls are taken overseas to undergo the procedure, but as of there were no firm figures. According to Colette Gallard, a family-planning counsellor, when FGM was first encountered in France, the reaction was that Westerners ought not to intervene.
It took the deaths of two girls in , one of them three months old, for that attitude to change. Around , women and girls living in England and Wales were born in countries where FGM is practised, as of Both men were acquitted in Anthropologists have accused FGM eradicationists of cultural colonialism , and have been criticized in turn for their moral relativism and failure to defend the idea of universal human rights.
Africans who object to the tone of FGM opposition risk appearing to defend the practice. The feminist theorist Obioma Nnaemeka , herself strongly opposed to FGM, argues that renaming it female genital mutilation introduced "a subtext of barbaric African and Muslim cultures and the West's relevance even indispensability in purging [it]".
The photographs were published by 12 American newspapers, without the girl consenting either to be photographed or to have the images published. The debate has highlighted a tension between anthropology and feminism, with the former's focus on tolerance and the latter's on equal rights for women. According to the anthropologist Christine Walley, a common position within anti-FGM literature has been to present African women as victims of false consciousness participating in their own oppression, a position promoted by feminists in the s and s, including Fran Hosken, Mary Daly and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein.
Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West.
The medical anthropologist Carla Obermeyer maintains that FGM may be conducive to a subject's social well-being in the same way that rhinoplasty and male circumcision are.
The WHO does not define procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction as FGM, but its definition aims to avoid loopholes, so several elective practices do fall within it. The legislation in those countries does seem to cover cosmetic procedures.
Sweden, for example, has banned operations "on the outer female sexual organs with a view to mutilating them or bringing about some other permanent change in them, regardless of whether or not consent has been given for the operation".
Arguing against suggested similarities between FGM and dieting or body shaping, the philosopher Martha Nussbaum writes that a key difference is that FGM is mostly conducted on children using physical force.
The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally salient, she argues, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape.
She argues further that the literacy of women in practising countries is generally poorer than in developed nations, and that this reduces their ability to make informed choices.
Several commentators maintain that children's rights are violated with the genital alteration of intersex children, who are born with anomalies that physicians choose to correct. Legal scholars Nancy Ehrenreich and Mark Barr write that thousands of these procedures take place every year in the United States, and say that they are medically unnecessary, more extensive than FGM, and have more serious physical and mental consequences.
They attribute the silence of anti-FGM campaigners about intersex procedures to white privilege and a refusal to acknowledge that "similar unnecessary and harmful genital cutting occurs in their own backyards". However, in some countries, medicalized female genital mutilation can include removal of the prepuce only Type Ia Thabet and Thabet, , but this form appears to be relatively rare Satti et al. Almost all known forms of female genital mutilation that remove tissue from the clitoris also cut all or part of the clitoral glans itself.
Book XVI, chapter 4 , Toubia , Eiman Hussein Sharief, "Female genital mutilation: Serour, "The issue of reinfibulation" , International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics , 2 , May , 93— Janice Boddy , Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press, , Oxford University Press, , Donaldson James, Susan 13 December Vintage Books, , ; for irugu being outcasts, Kenyatta, , and Zabus , 48— State University of New York Press, , ff.
Also see Lynn M. Thomas, " 'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': Homa Khaleeli, "Nawal El Saadawi: Egypt's radical feminist" , The Guardian , 15 April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation. Road sign near Kapchorwa , Uganda , Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country. Religious views on female genital mutilation. Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya.
Egyptian Doctors' Society call for ban. Sudan, under Anglo-Egyptian control , bans infibulation; the law is barely enforced. Guinean gynaecologist Aja Tounkara Diallo Fatimata begins year practice of performing fake clitoridectomies to satisfy families. Denniston, et al eds. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': A Reader , Pambazuka Press, , p.
Female genital mutilation in the United States. Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice.
Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Journal of Medical Ethics. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted".
Health Care for Women International. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April In an interview with the magazine, she explained what it's like to to accuse a titan in the industry of sexual assault.
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A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation.
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Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts. He argued iwu dating site company dating taken before and after this sharing of information would show iwu dating site different levels of support for FGM. Amber Rose calls it quits with rapper 21 Savage after a year of dating as datinb unfollow each other's Instagram accounts. Both Burke and Milano appeared on the Today show Wednesday morning to take part in the announcement. World Health Dafing, January When informed of the causal relationship between FGM and ill health, Mackie wrote, the women broke down and wept. Comments Share what you think.