Zoroastrianism - Wikipedia


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In Khorasan in the northeastern Iran, a 10th-century Iranian nobleman brought together four Zoroastrian priests to transcribe a Sassanid-era Middle Persian work titled Book of the Lord Khwaday Namag from Pahlavi script into Arabic script.

This transcription, which remained in Middle Persian prose an Arabic version, by al-Muqaffa , also exists , was completed in and subsequently became the basis for Firdausi 's Book of Kings.

It became enormously popular among both Zoroastrians and Muslims, and also served to propagate the Sassanid justification for overthrowing the Arsacids i. Among migrations were those to cities in or on the margins of the great salt deserts, in particular to Yazd and Kerman , which remain centers of Iranian Zoroastrianism to this day.

Yazd became the seat of the Iranian high priests during Mongol Il-Khanate rule, when the "best hope for survival [for a non-Muslim] was to be inconspicuous. The descendants of that group are today known as the Parsis —"as the Gujaratis , from long tradition, called anyone from Iran" [54] —who today represent the larger of the two groups of Zoroastrians.

The struggle between Zoroastrianism and Islam declined in the 10th and 11th centuries. Local Iranian dynasties, "all vigorously Muslim," [54] had emerged as largely independent vassals of the Caliphs.

In the 16th century, in one of the early letters between Iranian Zoroastrians and their co-religionists in India, the priests of Yazd lamented that "no period [in human history], not even that of Alexander , had been more grievous or troublesome for the faithful than 'this millennium of the demon of Wrath '. Zoroastrianism has survived into the modern period, particularly in India, where it has been present since about the 9th century.

Today Zoroastrianism can be divided in three different sects or dominions: Traditionalists or isolationists are almost solely Parsis and accept, beside the Gathas and Avesta, also the Middle Persian works called 'Nasks of the Sassanians'.

They generally do not allow conversion to the faith. Therefore, for someone to be a Zoroastrian, they must be born of Zoroastrian parents. Some traditionalists recognize the children of mixed marriages as Zoroastrians. From the 19th century onward, the Parsis gained a reputation for their education and widespread influence in all aspects of society. They played an instrumental role in the economic development of the region over many decades; several of the best-known business conglomerates of India are run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including Tata , Godrej , Wadia families, and others.

Though the Armenians share a rich history affiliated with Zoroastrianism that eventually declined with the advent of Christianity , reports indicate that there were Zoroastrian Armenians in Armenia until the s. A comparatively minor population persisted in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Persia, and an expatriate community has formed in the United States some from India , and to a lesser extent in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Many of these are titled restorationists, progressives or "reformists".

Progressives generally accept the Yashts and the Visperad texts of the Avesta as obligatory, along with the Gathas. Restorationists refer only to the compositions of Zoroaster, and thus only consider the Gathas , the other texts only having value as far as they elaborate on some Gathic point and do not contradict the Gathic teaching. At the request of the government of Tajikistan , UNESCO declared a year to celebrate the "th anniversary of Zoroastrian culture", with special events throughout the world.

In the Tehran Mobeds Anjuman announced that for the first time in the history of Iran and of the Zoroastrian communities worldwide, women had been ordained in Iran and North America as mobedyars, meaning women mobeds Zoroastrian priests. Some scholars believe [63] that key concepts of Zoroastrian eschatology and demonology influenced the Abrahamic religions. The religion of Zoroastrianism is closest to Vedic religion.

Some historians believe that Zoroastrianism, along with similar philosophical revolutions in South Asia were interconnected strings of reformation against a common Indo-Aryan thread. Many traits of Zoroastrianism can be traced back to the culture and beliefs of the prehistorical Indo-Iranian period, that is, to the time before the migrations that led to the Indo-Aryans and Iranics becoming distinct peoples.

Zoroastrianism consequently shares elements with the historical Vedic religion that also has its origins in that era. They are descended from a common Proto-Indo-Iranian religion. Vedic religious texts are replete with people from far flung countries practising or leaving Aryan teachings.

Zoroastrianism is often compared with the Manichaeism. Nominally an Iranian religion, it has its origins in the Middle-Eastern Gnosticism. Superficially such a comparison seem apt, as both are dualistic and Manichaeism adopted many of the Yazatas for its own pantheon. Gherardo Gnoli, in The Encyclopaedia of Religion , [68] says that "we can assert that Manichaeism has its roots in the Iranian religious tradition and that its relationship to Mazdaism, or Zoroastrianism, is more or less like that of Christianity to Judaism".

They are however quite different. Zoroastrianism, on the other hand, rejects every form of asceticism, has no dualism of matter and spirit only of good and evil , and sees the spiritual world as not very different from the natural one the word "paradise", or pairi.

Manichaeism's basic doctrine was that the world and all corporeal bodies were constructed from the substance of Satan, an idea that is fundamentally at odds with the Zoroastrian notion of a world that was created by God and that is all good, and any corruption of it is an effect of the bad.

From what may be inferred from many Manichean texts and a few Zoroastrian sources [ citation needed ] , the adherents of the two religions or at least their respective priesthoods despised each other intensely.

Many aspects of Zoroastrianism are present in the culture and mythologies of the peoples of the Greater Iran , not least because Zoroastrianism was a dominant influence on the people of the cultural continent for a thousand years. The Avesta is the religious book of Zoroastrians that contains a collection of sacred texts. The history of the Avesta is found in many Pahlavi texts. According to tradition, Ahura Mazda created the twenty-one nasks which Zoroaster brought to Vishtaspa. Here, two copies were created, one which was put in the house of archives, and the other put in the Imperial treasury.

During Alexander's conquest of Persia, the Avesta was burned, and the scientific sections that the Greeks could use were dispersed among themselves. During the Sassanid Empire , Ardeshir ordered Tansar, his high priest , to finish the work that King Valax had started.

Shapur I sent priests to locate the scientific text portions of the Avesta that were in the possession of the Greeks. The compilation of these ancient texts was successfully established underneath the Mazdean priesthood and the Sassanian emperors.

Only a fraction of the texts survive today. The later manuscripts all date from this millennium, the latest being from , years after the fall of the Sassanian Empire. The texts that remain today are the Gathas , Yasna , Visperad and the Vendidad. Along with these texts is the communal household prayer book called the Khordeh Avesta , which contains the Yashts and the Siroza.

The rest of the materials from the Avesta are called "Avestan fragments". Middle Persian and Pahlavi works created in the 9th and 10th century contain many religious Zoroastrian books, as most of the writers and copyists were part of the Zoroastrian clergy. All Middle Persian texts written on Zoroastrianism during this time period are considered secondary works on the religion, and not scripture.

Nonetheless, these texts have a strong influence on the religion. Zoroastrianism was founded by Zoroaster or Zarathustra , later deemed a prophet, in ancient Iran. The precise date of the founding of Zoroastrianism is uncertain. Zoroaster was born in either Northeast Iran or Southwest Afghanistan.

He was born into a culture with a polytheistic religion, which included animal sacrifice [72] and the ritual use of intoxicants, quite similar to early forms of Hinduism in India. Zoroaster's birth and early life are little documented. What is known is recorded in the Gathas —the core of the Avesta, which contains hymns thought to be composed by Zoroaster himself. Born into the Spitama clan, he worked as a priest.

He had a wife, three sons, and three daughters. Zoroaster rejected the religion of the Bronze Age Iranians, with their many gods and oppressive class structure , in which the Karvis and Karapans princes and priests controlled the ordinary people. He also opposed animal sacrifices and the use of the hallucinogenic Haoma plant possibly a species of ephedra in rituals, but held the rooster as a "symbol of light" [73] and associated it with "good against evil" [74] because of his heraldic actions.

According to Zoroastrian belief, when Zoroaster was 30 years old, he went into the Daiti river to draw water for a Haoma ceremony; when he emerged, he received a vision of Vohu Manah. After this, Vohu Manah took him to the other six Amesha Spentas, where he received the completion of his vision. Zoroaster believed in one creator God, teaching that only one God was worthy of worship. Some of the deities of the old religion, the Daevas Devas in Sanskrit , appeared to delight in war and strife.

Zoroaster said these were evil spirits, workers of Angra Mainyu. Zoroaster's ideas were not taken up quickly; he originally only had one convert: Many did not like Zoroaster's downgrading of the Daevas to evil spirits.

After 12 years of little success, Zoroaster left his home. In the country of King Vishtaspa in Bactria , the king and queen heard Zoroaster debating with the religious leaders of the land and decided to accept Zoroaster's ideas as the official religion of their kingdom.

Zoroaster died in his late 70s. Very little is known of the time between Zoroaster and the Achaemenian period, except that Zoroastrianism spread to Western Iran.

By the time of the founding of the Achaemenid Empire, Zoroastrianism was already a well-established religion. In Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda is the beginning and the end, the creator of everything that can and cannot be seen, the Eternal, the Pure and the only Truth. In the Gathas , the most sacred texts of Zoroastrianism thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, the prophet acknowledged devotion to no other divinity besides Ahura Mazda.

Daena din in modern Persian is the eternal Law, whose order was revealed to humanity through the Mathra-Spenta "Holy Words". Daena has been used to mean religion, faith, law, and even as a translation for the Hindu and Buddhist term Dharma.

The latter is often interpreted as "duty" but can also mean social order, right conduct, or virtue. Daena should not be confused with the fundamental principle asha Vedic rta , the equitable law of the universe, which governed the life of the ancient Indo-Iranians. For these, asha was the course of everything observable—the motion of the planets and astral bodies; the progression of the seasons; and the pattern of daily nomadic herdsman life, governed by regular metronomic events such as sunrise and sunset.

All physical creation geti was thus determined to run according to a master plan—inherent to Ahura Mazda—and violations of the order druj were violations against creation, and thus violations against Ahura Mazda. This concept of asha versus the druj should not be confused with the good-versus-evil battle evident in western religions, for although both forms of opposition express moral conflict, the asha versus druj concept is more systemic and less personal, representing, for instance, chaos that opposes order ; or "uncreation", evident as natural decay that opposes creation ; or more simply "the lie" that opposes truth and righteousness.

Moreover, in his role as the one uncreated creator of all, Ahura Mazda is not the creator of druj , which is "nothing", anti-creation, and thus likewise uncreated. Thus, in Zoroaster's revelation, Ahura Mazda was perceived to be the creator of only the good Yasna In this schema of asha versus druj , mortal beings both humans and animals play a critical role, for they too are created.

Here, in their lives, they are active participants in the conflict, and it is their duty to defend order, which would decay without counter action.

Throughout the Gathas , Zoroaster emphasizes deeds and actions, and accordingly asceticism is frowned upon in Zoroastrianism. In later Zoroastrianism, this was explained as fleeing from the experiences of life, which was the very purpose that the urvan most commonly translated as the "soul" was sent into the mortal world to collect.

The avoidance of any aspect of life, which includes the avoidance of the pleasures of life, is a shirking of the responsibility and duty to oneself, one's urvan , and one's family and social obligations. Central to Zoroastrianism is the emphasis on moral choice, to choose the responsibility and duty for which one is in the mortal world, or to give up this duty and so facilitate the work of druj. Similarly, predestination is rejected in Zoroastrian teaching. Humans bear responsibility for all situations they are in, and in the way they act toward one another.

Reward, punishment, happiness, and grief all depend on how individuals live their lives. In Zoroastrianism, good transpires for those who do righteous deeds. Those who do evil have themselves to blame for their ruin.

Zoroastrian morality is then to be summed up in the simple phrase, "good thoughts, good words, good deeds" Humata , Hukhta , Hvarshta in Avestan , for it is through these that asha is maintained and druj is kept in check. Through accumulation, several other beliefs were introduced to the religion that, in some instances, supersede those expressed in the Gathas.

In the late 19th century, the moral and immoral forces came to be represented by Spenta Mainyu and its antithesis Angra Mainyu , the "good spirit" and "evil spirit" emanations of Ahura Mazda, respectively. Although the names are old, this opposition is a modern Western-influenced development popularized by Martin Haug in the s, and was, in effect, a realignment of the precepts of Zurvanism Zurvanite Zoroastrianism , which had postulated a third deity, Zurvan , to explain a mention of twinship Yasna Although Zurvanism had died out by the 10th century, the critical question of the "twin brothers" mentioned in Yasna Haug's concept was subsequently disseminated as a Parsi interpretation, thus corroborating Haug's theory, and the idea became so popular that it is now almost universally accepted as doctrine.

Zoroastrianism developed the abstract concepts of heaven and hell, as well as personal and final judgment, all of which are only alluded to in the Gathas. However, the Zoroastrian personal judgment is not final. At the end of time, when evil is finally defeated, all souls will be ultimately reunited with their Fravashi.

Thus, Zoroastrianism can be said to be a universalist religion with respect to salvation. In addition, and strongly influenced by Babylonian and Akkadian practices, the Achaemenids popularized shrines and temples, hitherto alien forms of worship. In the wake of Achaemenid expansion, shrines were constructed throughout the empire and particularly influenced the role of Mithra , Aredvi Sura Anahita , Verethregna and Tishtrya , all of which, in addition to their original proto- Indo-Iranian functions, now also received Perso-Babylonian functions.

According to the Zoroastrian creation myth , Ahura Mazda existed in light and goodness above, while Angra Mainyu existed in darkness and ignorance below. They have existed independently of each other for all time, and manifest contrary substances.

Ahura Mazda first created seven abstract heavenly beings called Amesha Spentas , who support him and represent beneficent aspects, along with numerous yazads , lesser beings worthy of worship. Alicia Vikander is subjected to vile sexist abuse by online trolls as they compare her to the original Tomb Raider Angelina Jolie 'You've pushed me to this Rosie Huntington-Whiteley goes makeup-free on camera as she reveals her step routine and her must-have products Lauren Goodger displays her phenomenal weight loss in slogan body and leather leggings Candice Warner dons denim dungarees as she enjoys safari family day out with husband David and daughters in South Africa No wonder she's smiling!

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Adult stars launch sexual misconduct claims Hundreds of British celebrities, politicians and firms demand Google to 'rewrite history' and remove Yet, as I have pointed out before, allowing Muslims to take over Europe shows the true arrogance of the Zionists! And see how much WORK remains to be done! Violence will beget more violence. You have closed your hearts to Me. When you push God aside, then you shall suffer the consequences.

It is non self sustaining and relies on foreign aid which goes in to the pockets of a few billionaires. The main street of its capital, Jerusalem looks like the main street of some small town two centuries ago, as depicted in a Western movie, whilst Dubai is a city with a skyline above the clouds. What we are faced with in Iraq and Afghanistan is synonymous with a murderer committing murder for the thrill of the kill, for the momentary pleasure of destroying nations. The only thing stopping the demolition of the whole world for these psychpaths is logistics, and people with balls like Putin, Chavez, China and Abinidinijad.

What can you do with a conquered people that you cannot do with a free people? Because of this, I asked My Son to give them the means to get up again after they have fallen.

How many times as a concerned and sorrowing Mother, have I endevoured to urge my chidren to follow the path of conversion and of return to the Lord. In any case, it is a clear as can be: It is a matter of asking you a question about which you seem to have a lot of knowledge about, that should be sourced in your own Fatima traditions and records somewhere.

Nor can the consolation visit of The Lady on August 19 near the field of Valinhos near Alustral to the children be counted, as this was not part of her original instructions. Moreover, from statements of numerous other pilgrims at the Cova on August 13, there were witnessed indications and phenomena that The Lady did arrive as promised.

Of course, she herself was not ever visible to anyone but the children at the holm oak. The instructions meant for the 13th, The Lady gave on the 19th to the children at the field of Valinhos, so basically is included in the episode for August 13, the fourth apparition total, but the third in the designated series of months. Even then, The Lady was clear to the children that the designated place was the Cova for all of the series of the apparitions, not anywhere else.

Nicholas Gruner of the Fatima Center. I personally took Br. The Protestant churches are the only ones who have abandoned this practise of calling ministers Father. We must take the words of the Gospel which we believe are a faithful rendition of the words of Christ which is proven by the synchronicity of all four gospels with each other despite the personality style differences evident which show also that they were not trying to imitate each other.

St Paul also has an amazing monologue, amazing for its length, on the identity of Melchisadech in the Old Testament. But are we any clearer on the identity of Melchisadech as a result? St Paul was not the Pope, nor is there proof that the assemblers of the New Testament were infallible in that regard.

They are after all the Words of Life, which is Spirit and this is where true teaching comes in, through the Spirit validating as it does the Word, and the Word, testifying as it does to the Spirit, Alleluia. Even the Gospels or the translation of them contain at least one error when they claim that Jesus had brothers and sisters or when they insinuate that Jesus was descended from the line of St Joseph directly rather than that same lin running through his spouse Mary.

In other words held in higher esteem than their own writings. This was the clear instruction for the New church by the gospel which has been apostacized knowingly or unknowingly by the church from its controversial beginnings, wherein even then there was much confusion and dissention, wolves in sheeps clothing and even heresy. St Peter the first Pope never laid claim to fatherhood and he was the only one who according to subsequent tradition could have done so.

There are many writings of the apostles which we are not privy to and which have not been included in the Sacred Texts. All is totally dependant on validation by the Holy Spirit but gladly most of the New Testament passes that test appropriately. Much is missing I feel but whether or not it was appropriate to include we must rely on the writ iself as it has come down to us or we run the risk of going off the tracks altogether unless we accept it contains the essential for salvation, kernel of truth and no more lest it itself become a source of distraction from the Message which is Christ Crucified and Risen for our sins, and no other.

The pastoral sheep-shepherd relationship is a brotherly relationship only and, I could be wrong but this is possibly the reason the results in years have been so poor. That this error has been an innocent one I have no doubt - otherwise there would not have been such abundant fruit over the past years, to which the great Saints of the Cathoic Church at least, have testified and which can be read in their life histories -. If you do not feel touched by the Love of the Father in this video I urge you to Repent and place your life in the hands of his son, Jesus, …through Mary.

Catholic professor and educator, Alice von Hildebrand, relayed the following story of a Catholic professor giving a university lecture on the Catholic Faith to a mix group of students.

After the lecture, one of the agnostic and non-religious student came up to the professor and said. It follows that if your eye is sound, your whole body will be filled with light. But if your eye is diseased, your whole body will be all darkness. If then, the light inside you is darkness, then what darkness that will be!

Jesus also spoke to me about a priest once prior and HE used the term Father to name the priest sooooo. Illegal alliens are just a simple Dep. Just deport those not holding a valid visa. Then the shame is on any person who still believes something without having a method to prove it as being valuable. But, you are with your CONSTANT comments forcing and employing psychological warfare on all of us Orthodox here not realizing of course that any sincere Orthodox here are immune to your methods.

Nathanael, who has more merit than all of us here, for what he DOES and not simply what he says, that he is somehow wrong and needs to urgently convert to worshiping your Pope instead of God the Father…. If you think that Br Nathanael and all of us Orthodox Christians are so wrong and still need conversion, then WHY be on this site anyway?

And lastly, just to show how sincere Fr. We revere Mary the Mother of God, more that any other human. We ask her for Her help, knowing at all times, that She will relay our requests to Her Son. Therefore, while we honor Her, we do not Worship Her.

Nor do we ascribe the power of salvation to Her directly. Face it, you have been deceived by evil, all this time!!! See where your worship of Mary the Mother of God has taken you? Please do not present us with your heresies any more, go back and consider the damage you are doing to your selves and your fellow people who you present your lies to. Yes, I believe that the Indians have a right to live in India, surprisingly enough!

Cry me a river. You and your ilk are no more the recipients of divine favor than a stock or a stone. If, as The Lady said to the child seers that there was to be six more, or successive, or consecutive months that she would appear at the holm oak in Cova da Iria, then there should be seven total appearances at that spot within the timeframe from May 13 to November Yet, all that I read in Fatima materials seems to emphasize the May 13 - Oct 13 as the six months in sucession, and so far I have found nothing about a seventh apparition, other than what Sister Lucia revealed in her Fourth Memoir as new information, some 24 years after the event.

And because it is presumed that the identity of The Lady is deemed by the Catholic authorities to be the Virgin Mary, as such, sent by our Lord Jesus, she would be precise and specific in her short instructions to the children, as children are not very capable of abstract reasoning, even at the age of 10, as Lucia was.

Therefore, Lucia as a 10 year old understood it in a concrete, literal way. Is there any literature addressing this particular odd discrepancy? Has this issue even been acknowledged and addressed? Are we going to take this particular thread of discussion to another place or stop completely or what? The precedent which is Truth. I suppose that I share this same feeling with my fellow Orthodox Christians here, although contextualized differently for every person.

When I post something to you, as a REAL and by exclusive implication, not fake Orthodox Christian, the main personal and very internal concern is this:. Remember, everybody makes mistakes every single day. And where does that quote all add up to and how does it connect to all that I said above? You have been asked by so many people to stick to the point of each article, so many times. You made your point, you made your point many times. You never answer a single question.

Your religious community does not even fully agree with Scripture, let alone Holy Tradition and you still claim to be part of the Church? In what fantasy are you living in? We will never agree with your heresies. Truly they were twice-blessed, once for being far enough away in a sturdy building connected to their church, escaping the initial blast and radiation. Blessed again for being able to escape the resulting fire storm from the smaller fires that finally merged into a giant inferno of a firestorm some time later in the devastated areas.

There were a few survivors even closer to the blast center than the priests, some who were first able to crawl or dig themselves out of the rubble. Some of these survivors who lived until recently in telling their stories speak of how they lost their entire families who were still trapped in the rubble, hearing their cries for help.

After the initial blast, which instantly killed and mortally wounded many of those who were completely exposed in doing outdoor work, there were also early survivors who were indoors buried in the rubble and cellars of the numerous wooden houses that had collapsed — remember, this was an air detonation over the city, not one on the ground. Shortly after the blast, ad hoc rescue teams formed throughout the devastation doing as best they could with bare hands to pull people out of the cellars.

They had to leave off when the firestorm formed and finally consumed those who were still alive in the rubble. One sadly interesting item was the stastically low number of people with broken legs considering the massive amount of blast damage and trauma, maybe 4. The answer seemed to be that there were many wounded that were pulled out of the rubble, but without ambulances and other vehicles for transport, the rescue teams had to leave them behind when faced with the growing firestorm.

Suggest you google Hibakusha Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors for interesting insights from their various stories.

The one that touched me the most when I read it sometime ago, was of a hibakusha who remembered a student group doing work outdoors directly in the blast area close by her. To me, this little story of simple courage and tremendous faith in our Lord Jesus Christ is perhaps even more impressive than miracles themselves. So why are you hammering on bishops outside of your confession who are not part of this count in the directions addressed only to the Papal Catholic hierarchy to begin with?

The West departed from the East, not vice versa. The directions on the Fatima website are specifically addressed to the Catholic bishops in communion with the Pope, not the Eastern Orthodox, Assyrian, Armenian, or Oriental Orthodox bishops who are not. It very clearly says so. But I will show you whom you should fear: Fear Him who, after He has killed, has power to cast into hell; yes, I say to you, fear Him!

But he who denies Me before men will be denied before the angels of God. Then Nabuchoddonosor in wrath and anger commanded to bring Sedrach, Misach, and Abdenago: Also from now on we must choose sides. There is no other possibility.

Fuentes, December 26, - quoting from: Therefore, it is considered polite and courteous to answer a question or two posed to you, once in a while!

And if is through Beelzebul that I cast out devils, through whom do your own experts cast them out? Let them by your judges, then.

What more can I possibly say regarding the plight and condition of our contemporary World of Anno Domini but this:. John - John 2: Matthew at Matthew Luke at Luke I have said that to me, the apparitions are demonic. You have even acknowledged many times that I have said so. Implicitly, that answers also your yes or no question. Additionally, I also answered to your yes or no question by stating and subsequently proving that your question is really not a valid question, as it sneakily tries to make me admit thing which I do not want to.

Thus, everyone can see, that it is your ability to be courteous, which is under test here, not mine. Based on your interesting reconstruction of the verses concerning the Wedding at Cana ripped out of its entire context, you are saying that our Lord Jesus Christ Pantocrator, as the Divine Word Incarnate, Who is also the source of life and enlightenment, and because the Word is God, He is life, that:.

The Theotokos is a powerful intercessor and prayer warrior before God on our behalf. Never heard of either Eugenio Siragusa or Giorgio Bonjovanni until you mentioned them, looked once at their UFO Space-brother stuff, and that was enough. And am aware of certain UFO allegations to Fatima for certain similarities that were displayed.

Certain similarities in themselves may not necessarily prove or disprove the events as demonic. UFOs are demonic manifestations. We do not have a separate Mariology, nor separate monastic orders and apostolates set up devoted to Her, all veneration of the Virgin Mary takes place within ancient canonical liturgical and prayer settings and norms, such as Akathist hymns.

Miracles are also no absolute proof of the Divine origin or sending of an apparition, either. And, it should go without saying, that an apparition may be a true blessing sent by God, but satan can still work on sinful, fallen man to distort and confuse matters in the aftermath and later developments.

If one is familiar with the lives of the saints and fathers, then UFO appearances are almost identical in structure with the demonic appearances written about in earlier times.

What did St Paul say of demonic apparitions? What did the Church Fathers teach about distinguishing between demonic and divine manifestations?

In other words, that something is supernatural does not necessarily mean that something or someone is actually sent by God or is of Heavenly origin.

Your own Orthodox Metropolitans! Your own Orthodox Bishops! Biblical records of human beings encountering Supernatural Apparitions and Manifestations back in the 1st century Anno Domini:. From the Book of Revelation, we have St.

John the Apostle having his personal encounter with the Supernatural of Divine Origin right there at Revelation 1: Satan, his unseen demonic legions and his seen human stooges, dupes and allies running amok all across our contemporary World of Anno Domini???

Yes, you are saturated in blasphemy, because you have put your Pope above Scripture and Jesus Christ Himself! Yes, you are in NO Position to discern spirits because you have changed and disfigured all Holy, all Goodness, because you have made a ridicule of His Body the True Church and therefore have thrown your selves out of it!

Instead, you are spending half your time, figuring things out emotionally and in the gnostic way, just like your predecessors did. And the rest of your time, you are spending worshiping humans as Gods, e. Mary the Mother of God and your Pope! It is actually you who have altered your perception of Her and you are and have been paying for this, with the lack of grace in your religious community.

You take great and painstaking steps to prove the divine origin or NOT, as is the case with the Fatima apparitions , based on specific instructions given to us Christians in scripture. In the case of definite proof of divine origin you are free to venerate that apparition.

However in the case where it is not proven conclusively, you should NOT venerate it. If it is not proven to be of divine origin, then we may assume pretty conclusively that it was a DEMON that appeared. It is not the first time, nor the last this has happened.

For all of you Catholic Christians out there in Internet cyber-space visting and reading Br. You all have THIS: And you all have THIS: Do you want me to list the non complete list of your religious community leaders immense heresies again?

First off, if Fr. I know neither men, and therefore must take on faith that they are who they say they are and respect their ordinations as they have presented it. I take at face value Fr. Joseph states that he is an ordained priest of an American branch of The Union of Utrecht — originally the federation of Old Catholic Churches, most not in communion with Rome, now some not part of the original federation, that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility in As I also recall, Fr.

If I take at face value Fr. John has not mentioned any additional information as Fr. Joseph has, but its really not essential for me to know this, except as said before, taking what they say at face value, and presume they are telling the truth. Before he left for Russia, he was made an honorary U. Tikhon was the Bishop of the Diocese of the Aleutians and Alaska with the cathedra in San Francisco before he reorganized it into the Diocese of the Aleutians and North America, moved the cathedra to New York, and was elevated to Archbishop.

Bishop Tikhon, an ascete and not very robust, made difficult trips by sea, small boats - even kayaks for island travel, and on foot throughout Orthodox Alaska in very demanding terrain, in personally overseeing his Russian and Native Alaskan flocks.

Prior to the time he was recalled to Russia, he made one last trip, and it is said that all of Alaska wept. Tikhon was deeply loved by the Alaskan Natives who were first missionized by the Russians, such as the hermit, St. Herman, the Joy of Alaska; and the incomparable St. Innokenti the Enlightener of Alaska. Innokenti, a tireless worker, translated Scripture, the Liturgies, and other religious texts, prayers and chants into Fox-Aleut from Russian, inventing an alphabet for the native tongue to do so.

Fox-Aleut became the basic dialect for the transmission of the Gospel to the rest of the Aleutians tribes. Innokenti organized schools and work programs among the tribes, ministered to the Russian colonies, trained Native Alaskan clergy and built churches. May the God of peace and love be with all of you! I judge people by behavior and character, not by skin color. John, then it is clear who my role model is.

Ethnos and Nation are synonymous. Nation-state is mostly 19th century political phenomena, arising in the Balkans in the various struggles for national independence from under the Ottoman Yoke. Apostle Paul wrote to the Galatians 3: For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Judean or Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.

The Galatians of Asia Minor were close Keltoi tribal relatives of the Irish, by the way, with an interconnected confederation of highly cultured agrarian-based civilized tribes, which early had Greek colonies among them. Unknown to many, Christianity in Ireland does have Apostolic foundation, through the Apostles James and John, although the Apostles themselves never actually visited there. The Irish people were the westernmost extension of the vast Keltoi civilization — whose people called themselves the Gauls — which stretched from southern Russia, in close proximity to the Greco-Sythians around the Black Sea, through the European continent and eventually into the British Isles.

The Keltoi peoples kept in very close contact with their kinfolk across the Eurasian continent. When Christianity was first being spread by the Apostles, those Keltoi who heard their preaching and accepted it seeing it as the completion of the best parts of their ancient traditions and beliefs immediately told their relatives, traveling by sea and land along routes their ancestors had followed since before BC.

The two Apostles who had the greatest influence upon the Keltoi were the brothers James and John, the sons of Zebedee. This area continued to be a portal to Ireland for many centuries, especially for the transmission of the Good News. For that matter, Ireland never entered into the fold of the classic Roman political territories as Brittania and Scotia did, remaining fully independent and sovereign for many centuries as a federati kingdom.

Yet, Ireland was still very much a part of the political and ecclesiastical oeconomia relative to Constantinople and the Empire of Romania of the East and West. John preached throughout the whole territory of Asia Minor modern-day Turkey , and the many peoples living there accepted Christianity, including the Keltoi known as the Galatians in Cappadocia, and the same that the Apostle Paul wrote to. These people also communicated with their relatives throughout the Greco-Roman world of the time, especially in Gaul.

By the middle of the 2nd century the Keltoi Christians in Gaul asked for a bishop to be sent to them, and the Church sent St. Irenaeus, who settled at Lyons on the Rhone river. Among the many works St. Irenaeus accomplished, the most important were his mastery of the language of the local Keltoi and his preaching to them of the Christianity he had received from St. Polycarp, the disciple of St.

The more things change, the more the heresies remain the same. Nowhere in the Gospels does Jesus Christ promise to rectify every kind of inequality in this world - injustice, social, cultural, racial, economic, etc. As for the Great Commission given to the Apostles to preach the Gospel to all nations, Chinese archeologists not too long ago unearthed Christian grave markers that date to about 50 - 60 AD, well before the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple!

And, I believe it may have been the Tang Dynasty in China that was a medieval Christian dynasty, and was in cultural and commercial communication with Constantinople and the Byzantine Roman Empire. It was from China, through Constantinople, that the West received that marvelous invention — what we now call paper. Matthew - Matthew 6: I did not call into question your ordination.

I take it at face value that you are what you say you are without knowing you personally, based on the statements that you once made about your bishop and your tradition. Beyond taking you at your word, there is no way of either proving or disproving that you are an ordained priest. Everyone, including you, knows that women are not ordained into the priesthood of the Orthodox Church. Why even say that? And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried; And the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; And ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father;.

Thanks so much for your reply. I do have still good memory and you have taught before on the evangelical efforts of Orthodoxy, albeit very scarce in Central and South America, Africa and the Australian continent and adjacencies. Nathanael has recognized not a long time ago, the lack of Orthodox evangelization in many lands.

So things start to get dense, it is not just him, not counting with those who attend his parish and undoubtfully enjoy his bouts of uncontrolled bigotry. So for a simple matter of coherence and respect to devout Christianity I do prefer to hold an inclination to disbelieve in his priesthood. John and everyone else will read:. But it was TO St. For you see, according to a former U. For his multitudes of heresies and denials of Christ see my non complete list a few posts above , WHEN did your Pope cry and repent?

Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God:. The Prophet has spoken with presumption. You have nothing to fear from him. Satan and his seen and unseen demonic legions running amock all over our contemporary World of Anno Domini.

Joseph, for once, try to see this from my point of view. I mean no disrespect to you as a person. Try and read though my thinking and please, see if I am wrong. Acceptance by emotional response is sadly for you, not enough to convince me. Reports by third parties are not enough. We have to view this matter logically. Or even based on the given words or message. A Christian cannot deny this, otherwise they do not accept Scripture and they can then barely be called Christian.

Makes sense to me. Makes sense, because our Holy Tradition, has kept records on the matter. I hope we agree on this. As I have said before, this kind of thing is happening all the time. For example, one naive person may visit a medium, channeler or similar and be convinced that they are actually talking to Jesus Christ, Aliens , Angels etc.

I am sure you have read cases of this. Some, even get to see appearances of these things. But, we know that these things are demonic. How do we know this? We know this, by the reports, that when they are tested, they show their true face.

The face of the devil. I have given you the examples of Islam and the Mormons, but there are many many more. This has been suggested by evil spirits, and since we have not abolished our Holy Tradition we know about this. And, then there is the matter of contradictory information given to us by the devil, who is the father of lies:. Therefore, simply a Scripture-following and conforming person, let alone an Orthodox Christian, cannot and should not, accept spiritual events, by face value.

Do you have something real, sensible, perhaps Scripture based, or based on our common heritage, that will refute my words above?

Or hand him a snake instead of a fish? Or hand him a scropion if he asked for an egg? Luke - Luke Somebody comes running into the cockpit to see YOU. Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool.

John - John Have you found any information or literature for me as requested of you some time ago, regarding the possible seventh apparition at the Cova de Irena in November of ? I sincerely am trying to get to the facts of this. Sister Lucia wrote of it, so there must be something somewhere about this. Those that were at the Mass surrounded him and when a pulse could not be found, he was thought to be dead.

He then related what he had experienced. Fuentes, December 26, - quoting from the on-line and in-the-public-Worldwide-domain Internet reference webpage: It Depends on Men http: I have looked through the Fatima website of Fr.

Gruners, and apart from outdated historical information, such as the fall of the Soviet Union and such, I found no information about the question presented to you. Before that, Fatima was virtually unknown outside of Portugal for well over twenty years, and the local hierarchy was mostly concerned with locally establishing it as an authorized shrine for pilgrimages, as well as documenting for the beatification steps for Jacinta and Francisco.

Matthew - Matthew 7: However, there is a huge difference between internal documentation and personal correspondence as went on with the hierarchy, or between Lucia and her spiritual advisors, and publishing — literally making something public. Sure, its all public now and has been decades. Lucia wrote her Third Memoir in , as planning was underway for the publication of third edition of the book Jacinta, by Fr. Jose Galamba Da Oliveira.

Da Silva had written to Lucia at the end of July asking that she recall and write down everything she could about her cousin for the beatification process, and Lucia took this request as a sign from God that she should reveal the first two parts of the secret that the Virgin had conveyed to them on 13 July In the Third Memoir, therefore, Lucia, gave an account of these two parts of the secret for the first time, and of how she understood Jacinta to have been affected by them.

The published devotional materials based on the Memoirs were published and disseminated by the Holy See internationally in several languages on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of Fatima. There is no changing that historical chronology. Jose Bernardo Goncalves, who shortly before this experience had succeeded Aparicio as her spiritual director at Tuy. Lucia reported this experience to Goncalves, who in turn reported it to the bishop of Leira, Mgr.

Jose Correia da Silva. The bishop reportedly replied that he was already aware of the matter and needed to think about it. References in later letters of Lucia suggest that Gonsalves also attempted to communicate this vision and the accompanying request to Pope Pius XI. There is no clear evidence, however, that Pius XI ever received such a communication.

On August 15, , the Russicum was dedicated to Therese as co-patron of the missions along with St. Therese of Lisieux was beatified in , and canonized in This process was supported and encouraged by Catholics around the world. In order to make the necessary contribution to the Holy See for the costs of beatification and canonization, a collection was taken by the friars O.

The response was overwhelming, especially from American Catholics were known for their extraordinary generosity, which was evidently also combined with a great love for Therese. Prior General had a sum of money left over after all the expenses of the process of canonization had been paid. Since it was forbidden that money collected for one purpose be used for another purpose, he asked the advice of the Pope Pius XI. Pius XI instructed that the money be used to construct a college in Rome for the education of priests to serve as Catholic missionaries into Russia.

The college was meant to attract Slavic Orthodox students along with Slavic Catholic students for the purposes of furthering Uniatism from the immigrant and refugee communities located in various places in Europe that had fled the Bolshevik revolution and civil wars of Eastern Europe. I can perhaps understand the possible context of Mgr.

In the Gospel of St. I know, I know. The Lord is with you. What joy could surpass this, O Virgin Mother? What could be imagined more dazzling or more delightful? Before the miracle we witness in you, all else pales; all else is inferior when compared with the grace you have been given.

All else, even what is most desirable, must take second place and enjoy a lesser importance. Who would DARE challenge you? For this reason, when I look upon the privilege you have above all creatures, I extol you with the highest praise: On your account joy has not only graced men, but is also granted to the powers of Heaven.

Perhaps, just maybe, had St. No man can say that eyes have not had enough of seeing, ears their fill of hearing.

Bella Dodd over 60 years ago now:. The Holy Father i. Pope John Paul II is doing everything in order to prevent this war, but who listens to him in the Governments that desire this war? He knows how many people will be lost and that these nuclear weapons will be utilized by several countries.

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I think its important to continue to draw a distinction between Jews and Zionists, as I believe the Bible does in Rev 3.

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What is known is recorded in the Gathas —the core of the Avesta, which contains hymns thought to be composed by Zoroaster himself. And am aware of certain UFO allegations to Fatima for certain similarities that were displayed. The Protocols lay out the Jewish plan to destroy mankind, so that only the Jews rule the world.

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