AP Bio Chapter 25
This activity on determining age of rocks and fossils is intended for 8th or 9th grade students. Describe the major events in Earth's history from its origin until 2 billion years ago. This is known as the half life of U- But carbon dating won't work on dinosaur bones. The task now for each team is to determine how many timed intervals that is, how many half-lives the set of pieces they are looking at has experienced.
MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR EACH GROUP
Scientists can classify organisms that can help determine the relative age. This is well-established for most isotopic systems. Heating an item to degrees Celsius or higher releases the trapped electrons , producing light. After the graphs are plotted, the teacher should guide the class into thinking about: By measuring the carbon in organic material , scientists can determine the date of death of the organic matter in an artifact or ecofact.
A protobiont with self-replicating, catalytic RNA would be different than neighbors without those characteristics. If the protobiont could grow, split and pass on its RNA to its "daughters" its limited inherited characteristics could be acted on by natural selection. Although very rare are those few protobionts, out of the trillions in a body of water, with a limited capacity for inheritance would have had a huge advantage over the rest. Explain how the histories of Earth and life are inseparable.
The histories of Earth and life are inseparable because geological events affect biological evolution; similarly, organisms cause major chemical changes on Earth.
Taken together, such changes provide a grand view of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Explain how index fossils can be used to determine the relative age of fossil-bearing rock strata. Explain how radiometric dating can be used to determine the absolute age of rock strata. Explain how magnetism can be used to date rock strata. Index fossils are a starting point for the relative age of the fossils and rock around them. Radiometric dating is based on the decay of radioactive isotopes.
The ratio of carbon, which decays, compared to how much carbon is in a fossil can determine its age. The less carbon the older it is. Magnetism dating is used when other methods are unavailable. It dates the rocks around a fossil, based on the alignment of iron particles.
The alignment of iron particles throughout history changes repeatedly due to the north and south magnetic poles reversing. Describe the major events in Earth's history from its origin until 2 billion years ago.
In particular, note when Earth first formed, when life first evolved, and what forms of life existed in each eon. Stromatolites are layered rocks that form when certain prokaryotes bind thin films of sediment together. It is reasonable to hypothesize that single-celled organisms originated perhaps as early as 3. Early prokaryotes were Earth's sole inhabitants from 3.
Photosynthesis and the oxygen revolution left the earth with an oxygenated atmosphere. A few hundred million years later, the rise in O2 accelerated. It is believed that this is because of the evolution of eukaryotic cells containing chloroplasts from about 2. Endosymbiosis is a model that explains how eukaryotic features evolved from prokaryotic cells which posits that mitochondria, plastids, and other organelles were formerly small prokaryotes.
Serial endosymbiosis supports that mitochondria evolved before plastids through a sequence of endosymbiotic events. Paleozoic era-- first animals, diverse forests, first tetrapods Mesozoic era-- origin of mammal-like reptiles, dinosaur age, flowering plants Cenozoic era-- mammals, birds, pollinating insects, prime ates, ice age, humans.
Describe the mass extinctions of the Permian and Cretaceous periods. Discuss a hypothesis that accounts for each of these mass extinctions. Describe how chemiosmotic ATP production may have arisen. Chemiosmosis in an energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, like the synthesis of ATP. It mostly likely arose before there was any free oxygen in the environment and before the appearance of photosynthesis; the organisms that used it would have required a plentiful supply of energy-rich compounds such as molecular hydrogen, methane, and hydrogen sulfide.
Since there was very little oxygen at the time, chemiosmosis would have used other more abundant elements. Describe the timing and significance of the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.
The oxygenic revolution was a result of cyanobacteria, photosynthetic prokaryotes, who slowly led to plants. Eventually, earth was filled with oxygen which led to cellular respiration and life as we know it today. Explain the endosymbiotic theory for the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Describe the evidence that supports this theory. The endosymbiotic theory says that cells engulfed bacteria, didn't digest them and eventually the bacteria became organelles because the relationship between the two became mutually beneficial.
Only hard parts, like bones and teeth, can become fossils. But for some people, the discovery raised a different question. How do scientists know the bones are really 68 million years old? Today's knowledge of fossil ages comes primarily from radiometric dating , also known as radioactive dating. Radiometric dating relies on the properties of isotopes. These are chemical elements, like carbon or uranium, that are identical except for one key feature -- the number of neutrons in their nucleus.
Usually, atoms have an equal number of protons and neutrons. If there are too many or too few neutrons, the atom is unstable, and it sheds particles until its nucleus reaches a stable state.
Think of the nucleus as a pyramid of building blocks. If you try to add extra blocks to the sides pyramid, they may stay put for a while, but they'll eventually fall away. The same is true if you take a block away from one of the pyramid's sides, making the rest unstable. Eventually, some of the blocks can fall away, leaving a smaller, more stable structure. The result is like a radioactive clock that ticks away as unstable isotopes decay into stable ones.
You can't predict when a specific unstable atom, or parent , will decay into a stable atom, or daughter. But you can predict how long it will take a large group of atoms to decay.
Iamges: how is radiometric dating used to determine the absolute age of fossils
K—Ar dating was used to calibrate the geomagnetic polarity time scale. Keep Learning What happens during radioactive decay?
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale: This technique relates changes in amino acid molecules to the time elapsed since they were formed.
Right, each team must determine the number of millions of years represented by the set that they themselves turned over, PLUS the number of im dating the ice princess wattpad story of years represented by the set that another team turned over. Stimulating these mineral grains using either light optically stimulated luminescence or infrared stimulated luminescence dating or heat thermoluminescence dating causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral. Potassium is a radioactive isotope of potassium that decays into argon What is absolute dating? In uranium—lead datingthe concordia diagram is used which also decreases the problem of nuclide loss. Is it the single group's results, or is how is radiometric dating used to determine the absolute age of fossils the line based on the class average?
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