In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood - References and Notes

Highlights

grand canyon relative dating exercise

One can assume that at the beginning of the flood, many volcanoes erupted and the waters became enriched in Ar The ratio of these elements can indicate the age of a geologic layer, generally since it last underwent a metamorphosis, such as melting under the heat of molten lava from a volcanic eruption. Kill sites, places where hunters captured and butchered their prey, can also reveal valuable information. Radiometric dating is predicated on the assumption that throughout the earth's history radioactive decay rates of the various elements have remained constant. Some folks just can't bring themselves to play a waltz. Libby, the discoverer of the C14 method, which won for him a Nobel prize, expressed his shock that human artifacts extended back only years, a finding totally in conflict with any evolutionary concept.

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For example, it would be about one in million for rocks in the vicinity of 57 million years old. This is more difficult, and this is the isochron that I saw on the talk. IMO the North Rim deserves a dedicated day. Go early in the morning, take enough water for your entire party, and be sure to wear a hat, sunscreen and appropriate shoes for walking. One day is not enough time to see everything in Page, AZ. Which would be best for us to tackle? For more information, visit http:

The banjo player is Ben Eldridge, now the only remaining member of the original Scene. There were several memorable YouTube videos in the original western swing style. The first is a film of Bob Wills, which now features his vocalist Tommy Duncan.

This pattern is imitated by the two later performances. Asleep at the Wheel is a western swing band that began in the s, who strive to emulate the orginal Texas Playboy sound.

On this video, from a Tonight Show performance in , Tommy Duncan's vodal is covered by country singer Dwight Yoakum. Haggard fiddles and sings. The next video is Bill Monroe, the father of bluegrass music, from a live performance.

The banjo player is most likely Blake Williams. The idiosyncratic Hartford was one of the few banjo players who would stand up and perform with solo bluegrass banjo. The fourth version is a recording of the great Doc Watson on guitar, with David Grisman on mandolin, from , also posted on YouTube.

Watson is to bluegrass guitar what Earl Scruggs is to banjo. We are going to concentrate this week on the up the neck break to Roll in My Sweet Baby's Arms, first introduced last week. This incorporates your first example of Reno style "single string" work, sometimes called "guitar style," using the thumb and index fingers or thumb and middle fingers to imitate the up and down motion of a flat pick. Scruggs did it once in awhile, especially with the kind of honky-tonk licks featured here.

The tablature isolates the up the neck, so that you can easily loop it for practice. This week we are going to work on the tune which is known as a showpiece for the backward roll, Earl's classic instrumental Ground Speed, from the Foggy Mountain Banjo Album. The MP3 comes off of the album. I picked out three other YouTube videos with some real merit. This is from a club concert in Scotland in Pikelny now plays with a group called the Punch Brothers. The second features Leon Hunt , England's finest five-string picker, from an Irish television performance.

In my opinion, the student surpassed the teacher. This lesson looks at Earl Scrugg's version of the old bad man ballad, John Hardy. Sometimes performed as a vocal, it has also become a popular bluegrass instrumental, thanks to Doc Watson.. This recording is from a Columbia album Lester and Earl made with Doc, called Strictly Instrumental, which has been reissued by County. This heavily features several of Scruggs' signature D chord licks, which are not as prominent in other tunes.

The simple version is just the initial Scrugg's break, repeated for practiceing pruposes. Another solid bluegrass version comes from the band that dominated the bluegrass scene in Cincinnati when I first started playing banjo, Earl Taylor, Jim McCall and the Stoney Mountain Boys. The banjo player is Tim Spradlin. I downloaded this from vinyl, and the banjo did not come out as clear as I would have liked, but it is still interesting.

This record appears to be out of print. There are a number of classic old-time and classic folk versions of John Hardy, including recordings by Woody Guthrie, Doc Boggs, and others. One of the best is by the legendery blues singer Huddie Ledbetter, aka Leadbelly. I've included two contemporary old-timey MP3s which Ii really like.

Paul Brown, a great old-timey banjo picker and fiddler who is equally at home with clawhammer and old-time three finger, does a really interesting old timey three-finger version, from an album entitled Red Clay Country. In his day job, Paul is a reporter for NPR. All three of these musicians were at Clifftop, The Carter Family recording, made for Victor Records in , probably influenced just about everyone who came after.

Roscoe Holcombe , the appalachian musician known primarily for his two-finger old time banjo picking and singing, plays John Hardy on guitar.

The Bluegrass All-Stars, from around , are J. Danny Paisley and the Southern Grass do a nice version, from a May, performance at a Netherlands festival. We are going to continue building on your lead and back-up skills with the Hank Williams song I Saw the Light, which has become a bluegrass jam standard.

I have put up the tab for Foggy Mountain Top in order to introduce a new vocal and a new lick for our back-up practice. The entire CD has also been posted has been posted for listening on Myspace.

They yodel on this recording. Maybe she wanted to yodel. There is a nice video of Maybelle performing the number with her sister and neices, and they leave the yodel to the end. This lesson we will tackle Foggy Mountain Special, Earl Scrugg's honky tonk blues tour de force, which is a great exercise in Earl's honky-tonk style of playing. Raymond Fairchild , from Maggie Valley North Carolina, brings his own unique honky-tonk style to the tune.

This is from a festival at Beanblossom in September, The next two videos feature two of the leading proponents of jazz on the five string banjo, Bela Fleck and Pat Cloud. Cloud plays a break using some very nice chord melody technique. The last video is a nice clean busking performance by British banjo wizard Dave Hum.

This week's lesson focuses on Foggy Mountain Breakdown, Scruggs' famous instrumental used as the theme of the movie Bonnie and Clyde. There has been a resurgance in mainstream interest in Earl's picking, thanks to the active promotion of comedian Steve Martin , who is a very accompished banjo picker in his own right.

Martin now tours with the group, the Steep Canyon Rangers. Martin and Scruggs later appeared again on Letterman with a number of other country and bluegrass stars, including Vince Gill, Marty Stuart, and Leon Russell. Two other YouTube videos of note: Crow and the New South , from an August, concert in Mt.

This is a real tour de force of Scruggs' up the neck variations, with a lot of chokes, and bend and releases. Lonesome Road Blues has been around for a long time. This has been reissued on a Document Records CD. The Southern Broadcasters had two banjo players, including three-finger style pioneer Frank Jenkins. Another early three finger pioneer was his cousin, Snuffy Jenkins , who influenced Earl Scruggs.

The Stanley Brothers also recorded the tune, with vocal, back in the fifties. This is available on a Copper Creek reissue called Shadows of the Past. There are quite a few YouTube videos of the tune and song; I've linked to a few of the more noteworthy. Another pre-bluegrass recording from comes from early country singer Cliff Carlisle, complete with yodel. I have also included two performances folk music some folk music pioneers.

The first is from Woody Guthrie , with blues harmonica pioneer Sonny Terry. This was recorded in by musicologist Moses Asch, for the Library of Congress.

The Asch Recordings Vol. The second is finger style guitar pioneer Elizabeth Cotten , the composer of the song Freight Train. Finally, for good measure, I have thrown in a cover by The Grateful Dead, from a live concert in Hampton, Virginia. This week we are going to look at Eddie Adcock's instrumental version of the Battle Hymn of the Republic, picking in the key of C out of open G tuning.

The introduction provides a good exercise in making chord melodies, and overall the arrangement is a real working out playing in C out of open tuning chord positions. Adcock received national attention back in when he played his banjo during brain surgery!

Earl Scruggs' setting for John Henry is the first tune we will work on which will be using open D tuning. One of the cuts from the classic Foggy Mountain Banjo, this tune is a great exercise in the choke and release string bend that was also in Lonesome Road Blues.

The second MP3 example features Snuffy Jenkins , a pre-bluegrass three finger picker who heavily influenced Scruggs' own picking. Ralph later recorded this after Carter died, in Clawhammer style. The Fiddlin' John Carson recording dates is one of the earliest country music recordings, and probably the first audio recording ever made of the song. The last MP3 recording is country harmonica pioneer DeFord Bailey , who performed on the Grand Old Opry during the late 30's and 40s, the only blalck musician in those days to do so.

This is an audio recording which is accompanied by a photo montage of Bailey, as a young performer, and later in life. The banjo is tuned in standard G tuning, but is capoed on the 4th fret, putting the song in the key of B. The 5th string will have to be raised up to B, also. The TEF file follows the structure of the original recording, with a fiddle break substituting for the vocal. The YouTube video features a long comic introduction by Jayne, who was a respected Arkansas humorist.

Jayne was also the author of the song. This lesson we are going to try out another tune by Doug Dillard , his signature instrumental Doug's Tune. It is a virtual encyclopedia of Dillard's most characteristic licks. This is a close transcription of his performance from the Dillards first record, Back Porch Bluegrass , recorded for Elektra in The first YouTube video is a performance by the Dillards on the Andy Griffith Show, where they often appeared in character as "the Darlings.

The lesson this week will be our introduction to the picking of bluegrass legend Don Reno. Dixie Breakdown is one of Reno's signature instrumentals, and highlights his use of closed chord positions in his lead playing. The recording is from a live radio broadcast from the late '50s, reissued on a Copper Creek CD. As he says on the video, his father never played anything the same way twice. The second YouTube video is a solo performance by Italian guitar impresario Beppe Gambetta , doing some awesome flatpicking.

Reno's performance includes relatively simple examples of some of his signature techniques, including his guitar style "single string" melodic runs, his use of thumb brushes, and even the behind the bridge "Buckin' Mule" lick. For comparison, I have included three other bluegrass banjo versions of this tune.

The first is a recording by Bill Evans , straight ahead Scruggs style, from his Rounder album entitled Native and Fine. The second is from melodic wizard Scott Vestal , from a Pinecastle album entitled Bluegrass '95 , with Aubrey Haney on fiddle. Royce plays all the instruments on this recording. There are at least three old time tunes with the title Goodbye Liza Jane.

The video is as Universal Studios short from , and includes most of the classic Playboys members, including Tommy Duncon on vocal, Junior Bernard on guitar, and Leon McAuliffe on steel guitar. The band Asleep at the Wheel , featured in the second video, has been the leading Bob Wills interpreters over the last forty years.

This performance is from a concert in Greensboro, North Carolina. The Hot Club of Cowtown is known for a more radical style of Western Swing; this video is from a May, performance of the swing trio.

Wills influence was widespread in country music; a lot of bluegrass bands recorded covers of his most popuylar material, including this tune. Even some old time musicians picked up on Wills music. Old time and bluegrass mandolin master Jody Stecher has included it in his standard repertoire; this video is from a concert in Oakland, California, and features Chad Manning on fiddle, and Laurie Lewis on guitar. Even Wilson Douglas , the old time Appalachian fiddler from West Virginia known for his archaic modal fiddle tunes, plays Wills' Goodbye Liza Jane, even though he is at the other end of the traditional country music spectrum.

The lesson this week features bluegrass banjo legend Sonny Osborne , and Rocky Top, the song most associated with the Osborne Brothers, the band he led for many years with his brother Bobby. This provides a good opportunity to learn and practice a song, both lead and back-up, which goes beyond the usual three chords.

The MP3 file is the original recording from It has been reissued many times, and can be found reissued on a lot of compilation albums, including on which is just the Osborne Brothers, called Country Bluegrass.

The YouTube video is a more recent performance, probably from the late 80s or early 90s. This song is so closely associated with the Osbornes that it hasn't been covered by very many bands. There was an interesting performance on YouTube from finger-style country guitar legend Chet Atkins , with Paul Yandell , who was a protege of Atkins, and another great Nashville guitar finger picker, Jerry Reed.

This week we are going to learn another classic Don Reno performance, his classic arrangement for Washington and Lee Swing, a popular march written in by by Mark W. The tune has a lot of Reno's hard driving forward rolls, but also some nice chord melody, and some very fancy single string runs in the back-up. Super picker John Hickman is the banjo player. We are going back this week to study more of Sonny Osborne's great picking; this time listening to the Osborne Brothers cover of the bluegrass classic Pain in My Heart, recorded for CMH Records in , on an album entitled the Bluegrass Collection.

Richardson is the person who taught Sonny how to play. There are several YouTube performances worth noting. The Osborne Brothers perform the song in a live concert appearance, undated. The banjo player may be Paul Silvius, who was from the Boston area.

Someone has also uploaded the performance from the classic Rounder LP, The Bluegrass Album , which was Rounder's assemblage of the "dream" bluegrass band, including J.

This week we will tackle another recording from the Osborne Brothers, in order to continue studying Sonny Osborne's unique and original style. The song is played in B, so you will have to tune the banjo to open G, and capo on the 4th fret.

The Osborne Brothers recording is from , and features Mac Wiseman on lead vocal. They should have let her sing with Lester. There is also a video posted on YouTube of Lester and Earl doing Homestead on the Farm, from their mid-fifties television show sponsored by Martha White. Ralph Stanley also covered the song in the early seventies for Rebel Records. Del's son Robbie is picking the banjo. This week the subject is Ralph Stanley , and his classic song Little Maggie.

Stanley is the last of the triumvirate of early bluegrass banjo pioneers that began with Earl Scruggs and Don Reno. Ralph is still using two fingers on this recording. The Complete Rich-R-Tone 78s. The version tabbed here is from the classic Mercury recording, available on the reissue The Complete Mercury Recordings. Stanley later recorded the song after Carter passed away, and I have included that recording also. Ricky Skaggs does a nice cover with his band Kentucky thunder, available on his album Bluegrass Rules!

For contrast and an old-timey version not influenced by the Stanleys , I have included the classic Fred Cockerham version, recorded on the County album Clawhammer Banjo, Volume One.

The YouTube video features Ralph being interviewed by the late Mike Seeger Pete's brother , with Ralph giving a quick banjo lesson as part of the interview. The fiddle player is the late Curly Ray Cline. The second video features Mike Lilly on banjo and lead vocal, and Harley Allen on guitar and tenor, from a live performance at the Berkshire Mountain Bluegrass Festival around The last video is an upload of the original recording by the early country duet of G.

Grayson and Henry Whitter. This is what old time fiddlers call a "crooked tune," because it has an extra beat, an extra half measure, in the second part of the tune. As with some of his other numbers, Ralph approximates the old modal "sawmill" banjo tuning by fretting the 2nd string at the 1st fret throughout much of the tune.

The late Curley Ray Cline played the fiddle on this recording. One of the finest covers of this tune is from Alan Munde, who recorded this with his Alan Munde Gazette in an album first issued in , called Festival Favorites Revisited. The CD is available from Amazon , or directly from Munde. David Hum is a very innovative British three finger picker and street musician whose home made videos belie a very creative picker. He has come up with some great variations. Not to be outdone, nine year old Jonny Mizzone and the rest of the Sleepy Man Banjo Boys pick the heck out of it, too.

Dear Old Dixie is the tune this week, and it is a real wortk out in up the neck Scruggs style, with a fair amount of jumping around and fretting on the 5th string. The Flatt and Scruggs original was recorded in , and was one of the cuts on the influential Foggy Mountain Jamboree album, which has been reissued in CD format by Columbia.

Best of Rural Rhythm Classics. A lot of others have recorded this tune, including Bela Fleck , who put it on his first solo album, Crossing the Tracks , recorded for Rounder in There are a whole lot of YouTube postings as well, some notable. Alan Munde playes the tune with Laurie Lewis in a live performance from I would guess the early 90s.

The great British banjo picker Leon Hunt does a bang up job, from a club gig in July, The banjo player is Dave Johnston. This week we are going to begin to focus on the picking style of J. Crowe, thought by many to be the greatest proponent of traditional bluegrass banjo after Scruggs himself.

Our first example is one of the signature tunes of bluegrass legend Jimmy Martin and the Sunny Mountain Boys. This can be found on a reissue called King of Bluegrass , a compilation of Martin's classic Decca recordings, put out by the Country Music Hall of Fame. This MP3 recording features the young J. Crowe on banjo, recorded in , very early his career. In addition to learning Crowe's signature break, we will also work on the roll-based back-up Crowe used behind the mandolin.

Some years later, the Osborne Brothers included the tune in their repertoire; Sonny and his brother Bobby had preceded Crowe in the Sunny Mountain Boys, and the Osbornes kept a lot of Martin's repertoire when they formed their own band.. There are two good YouTube videos worth watching. Sonny, now unable because of ill-health to play, has been replaced by banjo picker Dana Cupp. The second video is a performance of the North Georgia bluegrass group Mountain Heart. The banjo player is Barry Abernathy , who manages a very accomplished sound despite having no fingers on his left hand!

This week we are going to continue our study of the picking style of J. Crowe , with Old Home Place, the signature song of his band J. Crowe and The New South. The song was the first cut on the band's first album with Rounder, self-titled J. Crowe and The New South , released in Crowe's banjo work epitomizes the dense back up work that characterizes his picking, not unlike that of Sonny Osborne.

The song was actually written by two members of the Dillards , Mitch Jayne and Dean Webb, and was first recorded on the first Dillards album, Back Porch Bluegrass , released by Elektra in The second vide is the cxurrent line-up of the band, in a performance at a southern Georgia bluegrass festival in March, None of the original members are still with the band, all went on to distiguished careers of their own.

We are going to continue our look at the picking of J. Crowe with one of his classic instrumentals, Train Almost certainly African American ante-bellum in origin, it has been played throughout Appalachia in one or another of its forms. Crowe recorded this tune in for King Records, on an album called Bluegrass Holiday. The members for this session included the great Red Allen on guitar, Doyle Lawson on mandolin, and Bobby Sloan on bass.

Train 45 was already a bluegrass standard when Crowe recorded it; the Stanley Brothers had recorded it for Starday Records as a single released in , and later included it on an album called, alternately, Banjo in the Hills , or The Worlds Finest Five String Banjo , released in All Time Greatest Hits.

Texas bluegrass picker Eddie Shelton recorded the tune as Train '76 for a now out of print Ridge Runner Records album called Expedition, issued in The record features a young Vince Gill playing dobro. Ross Nickerson has posted a fine version on the Banjo Hangout , which I have linked to here. There are quite a few YouTube postings of Train 45, I have picked out four as especially interesting.

The second is an upload of the Victor recording of G. Grayson and Henry Whittier , probably the first commercial recording of the song. Grayson and Whittier were also the first to record the ballad Tom Dooley; Grayson's uncle had been the person in Tennessee who arrested the villain in Ther third video is a television performance of Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys , with Vic Jordan on the banjo, probably around , when Jordan was with Monroe. The last is a video by banjo wizard Bill Knopf , and features some of his trademark jazzy chromatic improvisations.

This week we are going to learn one of J. Crowe 's own banjo compositons, the instrumental Blackjack, his signature tune. The tune was originally recorded by J. This fast tempo performance features some great up the neck work by Crowe, and some really interesting but managable open position Scrugg's type variations that show off his mastery of the style. Note that the original recording is pitched in the key of C, but I believe that is because the band is playing in B open G tuning on the banjo, capo at the 4th fret , but have their instruments tuned a half-step high.

I found a nice cover of the tune posted by a Banjo Hangout member that is worth listening to; he goes only by his BHO alias, banjoman There are two nice videos of Crowe picking Blackjack on YouTube. The second is a more recent performance from a Madison,Wisconsin concert, with the current line-up of the New South.

There are a couple of nice Banjo Hangout videos of Blackjack, including a video of a live performance by member Mark Marshall banjerpickr of Mount Carmel, Tennessee. The second is from picker and luthier John Boulding , from Mount Airy, North Carolina, which has some interesting melodic licks thrown in.

If you want sheer speed, watch and listen to 19 year old David Barnett mastertone , of Whitesburg, Kentucky, pick Blackjack at breakneck speed. Maybe this is what drove J. This will be the first song we have done in waltz time, which is not that common in bluegrass music.

I have included two YouTube versions. Some folks just can't bring themselves to play a waltz. The song was written by the husband and wife country music songwriting team Felice and Boudleaux Bryant , who also wrote Rocky Top. The Osborne Brothers, Sonny and Bobby, first began playing together on their own in , and within just a few years began experimenting with a more mainstream country influenced bluegrass sound, by adding first electric guitar, steel guitar, and then drums to their recordings and live performances.

By the late 60s, they often included a piano in their recording sessions as well. The March, session which included Georgia Pine Woods went a step further, adding a string section with violins and cellos for background. The recording features only the banjo for lead; Bobby takes no mandolin break.

While the banjo work is farly straightforward, without any of Sonny's avante garde banjo licks, the arrangement does feature some of the brothers signature "stop time" phrasing, which they used often, and is valuable technique to learn.

I found two YouTube postings of the song worth watching; the first is from a live Osborne Brothers concert in Sweden, in They apparently carried only two other musicians for this tour, a guitar and bass.

The second is a live performance by country music star Buck Owens , from a episode of the country variety show Hee Haw. I am not sure who the banjo picker is. We are going back to open D tuning, in order to learn the fiddle tune Bonaparte's Retreat. This is a very old tune, dating back at least to the Civil War, and probably decades earlier. Ther musiciologist Samuel Bayard traced the tune's basic structure back to an old Irish tune called The Eagle's Whistle.

Originally the tune had two parts, and it is still played that way by old-time fiddlers in the Applachian regions of Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina.

Around the turn of the last century, the smooth, long-bow fiddlers in western states like Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and Texas began to add a third part, using a melody fragment from an old nursery tune called Poor Little Country Maid. In , at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, the old melody, with it's Arabian flavor, had been used as a theme by a "hoochy-coochy," or belly dancer named Farida Mazar Spyropoulos, also known as " Little Egypt ," who was the slightly scandalous star attraction of an exhibit called A Street in Cairo.

A few years later, new lyrics would be written for the melody, published and widely sold under the title The Streets of Cairo.

Thus, the third part of the tune has long been referred to by fiddlers as "the Little Egypt part. King and Stewart are best known as the authors of The Tennessee Waltz, which they recorded and released in A modest success on the charts, Bonaparte's Retreat was covered later that same year by pop singer Kay Starr , who had some additional lyrics written in order to expand the song.

The song has since been recorded by countless country and western performers, though Starr's additional lyrics don't seem to have caught on. Steel guitar legend Leon McAuliffe also released a cover in Most of these vocal performances have transposed the tune to whatever key fits the singer; I have kept the tune in the key of D, still the standard key used by fiddlers. It is this western, three-part, long-bow version of Bonaparte's in the key of D that is most often played by bluegrass musicians today.

The first recording is from a practice tape made by Wry Whiskey, a band I was in about fifteen years ago, with Brian Clancey on guitar, and Tom Speth on bass. The open break is very close to the tab. Note, however, that I have added a new up the neck break to the tab which I have not played before, which I have not recorded. The fiddle player is Mack Magaha , who later played with Porter Wagoner. The last MP3 is a jam tape I made with my friend Don Couchie , a fiddler and banjo player from Ontario, when we camped next to each other this past August at Clifftop.

The tempo may seem slow, but this is the probably the original tempo for the fiddle tune, and the tempo that a lot of old-time country fiddlers still prefer to use. Don retunes his fiddle to the open D tuning DDAD traditionally used for this tune, which really emphasizes the "bagpipe" effect that a fiddler obtains by double noting the low strings as drones.

I made the first YouTube video sitting at my computer, back in March, , for a Banjo Hangout post. In this version, the A part is more reflective of the original fiddle tune, more notey than the simpler long-bow melody line inspired in part by the vocal rendition.

This has been reissued on a CD entitled Kay Starr: Capitol Collectors Series , put out by Capitol Records in The third video is an upload of a western swing cover recorded by steel guitar legend Leon McAuliffe. Appalachian folk performer Ola Belle Reed recorded the song on dulcimer in on an album called Rising Sun Melodies , reissued by Smithsonian Folkways in One of the finest instrumental versions I have heard note the tempo comes from Shetland fiddler Aly Bain , from the BBC television series he produced with American bluegrass guitarist Russ Barenberg , called the TransAtlantic Sessions.

Series 2 from Whirlie Records. The next video is a fancy fiddle rendition by banjo legend Tony Ellis , a concert performance in Circleville Ohio, July, The last YouTube video is a fine clawhammer performance by an unnamed young picker who uses the screenname dirigibleflames.

Horton first recorded the song in mid, with a beat that is sometimes described as rock and roll, but sounds more cajum to me, reflecting Horton's roots in the KWKH Louisiana Hayride. The recording did not sell well, so Horton re-recorded it six months later with a folksier beat, with banjo and harmonica.

The Essential Johnny Horton Country singer Rose Maddox released a cover of the song in , with a bluegrass style rendition complete with banjo, on an out of print Capitol Records LP called Rose Maddox Sings Bluegrass.

The banjo on this cut is done clawhammer style, but in concert, the McReynolds had their five-string picker revert back to Scruggs style. The banjo player is Garland Shuping, who died in , at the age of The second video is from the Porter Wagoner television show, probably from the mids. That is Buck Trent playing electric banjo at 0: Magaha also played for many years with Don Reno and Red Smiley.

The last video is an upload of a tape made at a live concert of The Grateful Dead , recorded at the Boston Tea Party club, in The first time through the back-up, I want you to just noodle with basic open posiiton rolls, experimenting with different licks that Earl uses here and that you have learned from previous lessons. In addiiton, most of the classic up the neck back up licks that Earl uses in Doin' My Time have been converted to exercises. The idea is to practice those up-the-neck back up and fill-in licks separately, and then insert them spontaneously when playing along woth the tab.

This will give you a chance to look separately at some of the more standard licks, and learn how to move them around the neck. Concentrate first on the exercises in bold. The tune is in the key of A, so the banjo will be tuned to standard G, and capoed on the 2nd fret. However, the tune modulates to the key of F in the second part; on banjo, this will be the key of Eb!

Rice is accompanied by J. There is an excellent MP3in the Banjo Hangout archive by a member known only by his handle, mikeinaugusta , uploaded ion This is a fine, sparkling performance.

The much simpler Earl Scruggs version was the subject of Lesson Munde is a real banjo technician, a pioneer in the merging of traditional Scruggs style with more modern melodic phrasing, something Munde does seamlessly. Never Ending Love is a fine example of his technique and taste. Note that throughout the performance, Munde never resorts to any closed position, vamp style back up.

Instead, he is playing the rippling, noodling style of back-up that has become standard practice among many progressive bluegrass bands today. When rolling through closed chord positions up the neck, Munde often frets the 5th string. Note the bug in the software which forces me to enter the wrong fret number in order to obtain the right pitch.

The correct fret is notes in the tab. I have also provided alternate measures at the end of the tab, should this technique prove too difficult. This was Crowe's attempt at a crossover album, and included drums, steel guitar, and electric bass on all tracks. She's Gone, Gone, Gone is one of the cuts that sticks closely to the bluegrass formula, though there is a break by the steel player which I have replaced in the tab with a repeat of the banjo break.

The album also features the late Keith Whitley on guitar and lead vocal, Jimmy Gaudreau on mandolin, and Doug Jernigan on steel. The tune provides a good but not too difficult exercise in both open position roll based back-up, and closed position vamping. She's Gone, Gone, Gone was written by the Harlan Howard , once of Nashville's most prolific and successful songwiters. It was first recorded by country legend Lefty Frizzell , and released as a single in March, , with the great Pete Drake on pedal steel guitar.

I was able to find on-line a unreleased recording of the underappreciated banjo master Walter Hensley and The Dukes of Bluegrass, from the early 70s. Banjo wizard Carl Jackson , who came to prominence backing up Glen Campbell on his 60s television show, released a single of the song in This was finally re-issued on Jackson's Synergie CD, entitled Nashville Country , and features a little bit of Jackson's signature melodic style.

Even with the banjo, this is really more country than bluegrass. During the late s German-born American archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann conducted expeditions in Greece and Turkey, near the coasts of the Aegean Sea. Schliemann first excavated in Hissarlik, Turkey, revealing what he claimed were several distinct periods of the great city of Troy, which is described in the Iliad, an epic tale by Homer.

Schliemann also excavated in Mycenae, Greece, searching for the tomb of the Greek leader Agamemnon, who campaigned against Troy in the Trojan War.

Schliemann conducted quick excavations, destroyed large portions of his sites, which earned him the suspicion and anger of the Turkish government. Many other archaeologists followed Schliemann, conducting more methodical and scientific excavations of lands surrounding the Aegean. Recent archaeology of the classic civilizations of Europe has concentrated on the lives of common citizens.

American archaeologist David Soren, for example, led a research team in the s in southwestern Cyprus. Soren and his team reconstructed the events of a powerful earthquake that struck the Roman port of Kourion in AD Historical archaeology examines past cultures that used some form of writing.

Although writing was invented thousands of years ago in some parts of the world, many historical archaeologists study only the past few hundred years. Historical archaeologists use written documents as part of their research, and they may work in collaboration with historians. This kind of archaeology first developed in North America and England. It continues to thrive in both of those places but is also practiced in many other parts of the world.

Historical archaeologists have studied a wide variety of subjects, such as relations among settlers and Native Americans in colonial North America, Spanish religious missions in the southern United States, medieval villages in England, and early factories of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America. Underwater archaeology uses special methods to study shipwrecks and other archaeological sites that lie beneath water. Archaeologists who work under water rely on sophisticated diving and excavating equipment and employ special techniques to preserve perishable materials that have been submerged for long periods.

In an extensive underwater archaeological project from to , a team led by American archaeologist George Bass and Turkish archaeologist Cemal Pulak recovered the cargo of a heavily laden Bronze Age ship at Uluburun, off the southern coast of Turkey. The ship, which was wrecked in a storm around O BC, carried enough copper and tin ingots to forge weapons for a military regiment of several hundred people.

Some archaeologists learn skills from other disciplines to form specialized fields of study. For instance, experts in zooarchaeology study animal bones found in and around human habitations, from which much can be learned about human subsistence methods.

Archaeologists who specialize in paleoethnobotany study the plants used by ancient people for food, medicine, and other purposes. Some archaeologists also have expertise in such subjects as radiocarbon dating methods or the techniques used in ancient metallurgy the making of metals from mineral ores. Another archaeological specialty, geoarchaeology, determines what ancient environments and landscapes were like. Geoarchaeologists use many sources of information and specialized techniques to learn about environmental conditions of the past.

For example, they learn about past global and regional temperature changes by examining changes in the composition of the air, water, and sediments in large cores of the earth taken from the deep-sea bottom or the polar ice caps. Some geoarchaeologists also have expertise in zooarchaeology or paleoethnobotany.

They may use this expertise to examine millions of tiny fossil pollen grains preserved in old layers of sediment. The bones of some animals, including rodents and many invertebrates, can also provide clues about ancient climates.

For example, in the s and s American archaeologist Hallam Movius gathered such data from the Abri Pataud rockshelter of the late Ice Age in the Dordogne Valley of southwestern France. His research showed how hunter-gatherer bands living there 18, years ago adapted to constantly changing climatic conditions, which alternated between bitter cold and warmer periods.

Archaeologists working with botanists have also learned about prolonged drought cycles that affected the Anasazi Pueblo peoples of the North American Southwest. Because of the effects of such drought cycles on food production, these peoples abandoned large towns and dispersed into small villages about years ago. Since the s, American tree-ring expert Jeffrey Dean has examined wooden beams from ancient pueblos dense villages of adobe and stone houses.

Dean has used dendochronology the study of annual growth ring sequences in tree trunks to determine when droughts occurred and how long they lasted. Modern archaeological studies have three major goals: Chronologies establish the age of excavated materials. Reconstructions are models of what past human campsites, settlements, or cities—and their environments—might have looked like, and how they might have functioned. Explanations are scientific theories about what people living in the past thought and did.

Archaeologists carefully record their excavations in a way that allows them to piece together culture histories— chronologies time perspectives of past cultures. Excavations reveal the order in which remains were deposited, while laboratory analyses can give the actual age of remains.

Archaeologists also document how each artifact or fossil lies in the ground in relation to other artifacts or fossils. This task involves careful recording of geological and artifact layers, or strata. Chronological data can provide information such as how the use of a new style of pottery or type of weapon spread from one region to another over time.

By analyzing this information for several related archaeological sites, archaeologists assemble long sequences of past human cultures. Kidder excavated human occupations at the pueblo going back more than years. Occupations are clearly defined layers of artifacts and fossils created by people who lived at a site. He also collected pottery passed down through many generations of pueblo inhabitants. From these collected items, he was able to establish a continuous record of pottery styles from years ago to the s.

Kidder then analyzed trends and changes in pottery styles through time. Archaeologists have since used the Pecos pottery sequence to assign approximate dates to dozens of sites throughout the Southwest and to determine cultural ties and differences among them. Building on information about the chronology and composition of sites and their environments, archaeologists reconstruct how life might have looked in particular places at particular times. The reconstruction of past ways of life depends on interpretation of well-documented material remains and environmental remains in their chronological contexts.

Environmental remains may include animal body parts—such as bones, skins, and feathers—as well as parts of plants, such as seeds, pollens, and spores.

The analyses revealed a shift in subsistence patterns over a year period. During this time, the inhabitants of the valley shifted from a pattern of seasonal migration and a diet of wild plants and game animals to a more stable pattern of settlement and a diet based on cultivated maize corn , beans, and squash.

In another classic study of an archaeological site in its ecological setting, British archaeologist Grahame Clark excavated a tiny Stone Age hunting site in The site at Star Carr in northeastern England dated as far back as 10, years ago.

By analyzing animal bones and tiny pollen grains, Clark determined that the site was at one time set amid reeds at the edge of a glacial lake and had been surrounded by a dense birch forest. The site yielded a wide variety of tools made of stone, bone, and antler. In the s and s archaeologists have returned to the site with more refined methods of analysis. They have been able to reconstruct the details of a yearly springtime habitation of the site over many centuries.

Archaeologists commonly use theoretical models, experiments, and observations of the world as it is today to try to explain what happened in the past. They have attempted to explain, for example, why people first began to walk upright and why civilizations that once flourished suddenly collapsed.

Good explanations come from well-thought-out theoretical models that propose ways in which the existing archaeological record might have been formed.

Explanations can include factors such as environmental changes, demographic shifts changes in population makeup and size , migrations, and patterns of thought and behavior. Whereas reconstructions use physical remains to create a picture of the past, explanations are attempts to answer questions about the past. They might be explained by any one factor or a combination of factors, such as a dramatic change in weather patterns, an increase in the population, or a conscious decision to take advantage of a new discovery—agriculture.

To be persuasive, an explanation has to fit with the existing archaeological data and stand up to scrutiny over time. It would be extremely difficult for archaeologists to interpret the archaeological record if they thought that people and cultures of the past bore no resemblance to those of today.

Because they assume that there has been some continuity through time, archaeologists commonly use information from the present to interpret the past. One way they accomplish this is by doing archaeological research on present-day societies—studying the ways in which people live today and the material traces that their activities leave behind.

This method is known as ethnoarchaeology. Archaeologists also try to experimentally recreate the patterns they find in their research—a technique known as experimental archaeology. Successful recreations can become plausible explanations for how the archaeological record was formed. Artifact and fossil evidence reveals that humans lived by hunting and gathering until relatively recently in human evolution.

Through ethnoarchaeology, archaeologists cautiously deduce characteristics of past cultures based on their observations of living peoples. Archaeologists believe that present-day hunter-gatherers and people who lived throughout much of prehistory share some aspects of their ways of life.

To document the lives of living peoples, archaeologists do a brief type of ethnographic research, the method of study usually practiced by cultural anthropologists. Ethnoarchaeological research can provide valuable clues for deciphering accumulations of artifacts and other remains found in archaeological sites, particularly accumulations that resulted from such activities as toolmaking or animal butchering.

In an ethnoarchaeological study made from to , American archaeologist Lewis Binford documented the caribou hunting methods of the Nunamiut Eskimo of Alaska. He followed the hunters, studied their butchering techniques, and mapped their kill and butchering sites. Binford collected information that proved extremely useful in interpreting distributions of animal bones in other archaeological sites. Archaeologists may also try to recreate the artifacts and patterns they find in excavated sites in order to understand how artifacts were made and how patterns formed.

In experimental archaeology, archaeologists perform controlled experiments to help interpret finds such as abandoned fire hearths, accumulations of waste from stone toolmaking, and collapsed buildings. In experiments conducted in the s, American paleoanthropologists Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick reconstructed the simple stone toolmaking techniques of early humans through controlled replication.

They and their research teams used the same types of stones that the first toolmakers used and even collected them from the same areas. They tried making tools in a variety of ways. By making tools using both their right and left hands, and then comparing the resulting patterns in their tools with those from prehistoric sites, Toth and Schick learned that some early humans were left-handed.

In addition, the stone flakes left by ancient toolmaking allow an expert to reconstruct minute details of stone technology, such as whether and even how many times a tool was retouched to give it a new, sharp edge.

Toth and Schick and their research teams also butchered animal carcasses with stone tools to see what the resulting cuts look like. This information has helped archaeologists determine the extent to which ancient peoples hunted or scavenged for meat. Some of the most ambitious experimental archaeology projects have involved long-term trials with prehistoric farming methods in Europe. Since archaeologists have experimented with prehistoric agricultural methods at Butser in southern England.

Using only ancient tilling implements, they plant and grow varieties of grains used in prehistoric times. Other research at Butser involves breeding animals that were bred in prehistoric times. Researchers also have experimented with storing food supplies in covered pits in the ground, a practice that was common around BC during the Iron Age. Using this technique, ancient farmers could keep food supplies over long winters and store seed to plant each spring.

Before archaeologists excavate, they locate potential sites and test them to determine if the sites will yield artifacts and other remains. Until about the late s, many archaeologists favored large-scale excavations, arguing that the more ground they cleared the more they would discover. Today, archaeologists know that any disturbance of an archaeological site, however scientific, actually destroys an irreplaceable record of the past.

For this reason, modern excavations are usually done on a more limited scale. Once excavated, archaeological sites are gone forever. Good survey techniques are crucial for minimizing damage to the record and for locating sites that contain objects of interest.

Increasingly, archaeologists are also using less intrusive ways of investigating the past. Advanced technologies that can provide archaeological data without digging—such as various kinds of radar, magnetic sensors, and soil electric-resistance detectors—can keep actual excavation to a minimum.

How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample make test excavations on large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites. Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece; the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England.

But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterfly hunter who literally fell into its deep valley in Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the s.

Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun existed from information found in other sites.

Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located the tomb in He was searching for tiny engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the s to s BC. To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging.

Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields. Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape.

Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites.

Two- and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research. Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. At its peak around AD , this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. Achaeologists rely on a wide variety of aerial survey methods, all of which are commonly referred to as remote sensing.

Remote sensing involves using photography, radar, and other imaging technologies to detect potential sites. The technology was developed largely as a tool for military reconnaissance. During World War I American military pilots took photographs from the air that revealed previously unknown archaeological sites in France and the Middle East. Archaeologists have used aerial survey techniques ever since. Aerial photography is especially useful for detecting archaeological sites that are difficult to see from the ground.

Aerial photographs reveal human-made geographical features such as earthworks; these giant earthen mounds were erected by prehistoric peoples in many parts of the world, including Britain and North America Mound Builders.

Aerial photos have also revealed entire Roman road systems in northern Africa that are almost invisible from the ground. Some sites appear in aerial photographs as distinctive marks running through agricultural fields and deserts.

For instance, at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, a combination of aerial photographs and other techniques revealed the full extent of an elaborate road system that led to the pueblos and sacred sites of the Anasazi people whose society centered on the canyon between about AD and The Chaco road system was almost invisible on the ground without the help of air photographs.

Aerial photographs of infrared radiation can detect minute differences in ground temperatures. Using infrared photography, archaeologists identify soils that have been disturbed or manipulated in the past, as well as other ground features that are normally invisible. Infrared photographs and thermal scanners also detect the presence of subsurface stone and variations in soil moisture. Subsurface stone may indicate the presence of buried buildings, and soil moisture differences can reveal ancient crop fields.

Sideways-looking airborne radar SLAR is an advanced aerial technology that sends and receives pulses of radiation. SLAR is commonly used for geological mapping and oil exploration; archaeologists find it useful for locating sites under the dense canopy of rainforests. The excellent imaging capabilities of SLAR helped archaeologists solve the mystery of how the Classical Maya civilization supported its enormous population.

SLAR revealed formerly invisible, gray, crisscrossed grids in the swampy lowlands of the Maya region. Subsequent ground surveys identified these grids as ancient moat-and-field systems, called chinampas , which Maya farmers used to grow large quantities of maize and other staple crops. Archaeological sites have also been located from space. Imaging radar systems carried on U. Vance Haynes discovered ,year-old stone axes in the subsurface deposits of one of these valleys.

These tools provide evidence of human habitation in the Sahara when it was a fertile area with plenty of vegetation. Much archaeological research still takes place on the ground. Most ground surveys involve long days of walking and looking for telltale signs of ancient human habitation. Various objects may remain on the surface for long periods of time.

Archaeologists may find pot fragments or stone tools, light-colored ash from ancient fires, and piles of shells accumulated by people who ate shellfish.

Other objects come up to the surface when previously built-up sediments are eroded by weather, or they may be brought up by burrowing animals. Archaeological sites are usually inconspicuous, however. When an archaeologist has reason to believe that there is something to be found in a particular area, systematic and patient searching sometimes pays rich dividends.

British archaeologist Francis Pryor spent many months searching the banks of drainage canals in the flatlands of eastern England. In he finally found some waterlogged timbers at Flag Fen, a bog near the present-day city of Peterborough. These timbers were the remains of a submerged year-old Bronze Age settlement and field system. The marshland preserved a long set of posts, the remainder of 50, such posts that held up a platform stretching for 1 km 0.

Researchers also retrieved the oldest-known wheel in England from the marsh. It is a powerful tool for examining buried features at archaeological sites. The village was buried under volcanic ash in the 6th century AD. Using computers, researchers created a three-dimensional map of the landscape as it appeared before it was buried.

In recent years, many archaeologists have begun to use geographic information systems GIS to aid in mapping sites. These computer-based systems allow the collection, storage, and manipulation of environmental, geographic, and geologic data, together with archaeological information, in a single database.

Using this technology, archaeologists can create maps that simulate different environments and ways in which people might have used land, living space, and material goods. Researchers mapped thousands of computerized pictures of artifacts directly over floor plans of individual houses, matching specific artifacts to the exact locations where they were recovered.

Many 19th-century archaeological excavations proceeded unscientifically. Archaeologists commonly rushed through disorderly searches for spectacular art works and buried treasure. During the 20th century, archaeologists developed precise, detailed methods of excavation and statistical sampling mathematical ways of answering questions using relatively small amounts of data.

Archaeologists today can often obtain more information from a small trench than they could recover from a large dig a generation ago. At the temperatures and pressures in the subterranean water, each gram of water was ionized hundreds of millions of times more than the water you drink. When the flood began, the temperature and pressure of the water jetting up through the rupture suddenly dropped, so oppositely charged electrical particles slammed together, thereby converting the electrical ionization energy into heat that then accelerated the water to even greater speeds.

Conduction and convection including boiling within the liquid remove relatively little heat from the liquid; radiation at these temperatures is small. Conversly, if the pressure increases, a small amount of vapor quickly condenses, on each liquid droplet, releases its heat of condensation, which then keeps the remaining vapor from condensing. This explains why no amount of pressure can liquefy all the water vapor. Philippe Wernet et al. The energy in the subterranean chamber was vastly greater than one would suspect by simply examining a steam table.

Steam tables do not include the dominant forms of energy that were in the subterranean water, namely 1 ionization energy explained in Endnote 52 and sometimes called energy of dissociation , 2 surface energy, 3 chemical energy from burning within SCW, and 4 nuclear energy. What is surface energy? Energy is required to create a surface, because chemical bonds must be broken.

Immediately before the rupture, the total surface area of all microscopic liquid bundles in the SCW was about a trillion times greater than before tidal heating began. Furthermore, the polar nature of water molecules gives liquid water unusually high surface energy. Therefore, as tidal pumping added energy to the SCW, most of that energy 1 ionized both the liquid and vapor, and 2 increased the total surface area of the liquid bundles by further fragmenting the microscopic liquid particles.

Consequently, temperatures did not rise as much as one might expect. Baron Cagniard de la Tour and most researchers before thought supercritical fluids SCFs were gases. They were wrong, although at the macroscopic level, SCFs behave in many ways as gases. Unseen were microscopic droplets of liquid floating throughout the dense vapor. These shimmering droplets account for many amazing properties of SCFs. Also, his glass tubes were attacked by the high solubility of water as it approached the critical point.

Most of us were taught as children that pure substances can be one of three forms: Almost always omitted was a fourth form: Although supercritical fluids were discovered in , even teachers are usually unaware of their existence. Any pure substance such as water, carbon dioxide, or lead is supercritical when its pressure and temperature exceed those of its critical point—the pressure-temperature combination at which the density of the liquid and vapor are equal. A well-known novelty item, the lava lamp, demonstrates some aspects of this.

A lava lamp is a vertical, transparent tube containing two brightly colored liquids with slightly different densities. A light bulb at the bottom heats the denser liquid, causing it to expand become less dense and float up into the liquid above. Because the densities are almost equal, a slight undulation in the lower liquid will rise far into the liquid above and then pinch off to become a droplet.

Sometimes droplets collide and merge. Because the liquid droplets in supercritical fluids are so small, these intermolecular forces are huge.

Therefore, SCW cannot boil. Extremely high-velocity water droplets can cut steel and other hard solids, much as a knife cuts butter. In , one of the first solids dissolved in a SCF for economic purposes was caffeine from coffee beans. This produced decaffeinated coffee. Organic wastes and toxic substances such as the agents in chemical weapons can be dissolved in SCFs and rendered harmless.

Even if the water trapped in the spongelike pockets was not forced back into the subterranean chambers, the plate would settle very slowly, for other reasons. Also, the increasing load of sediments, especially from crushed pillars, slowed the flow. Velocity and erosion from the upward expanding flow will increase as the top of the plate is approached. When the plate finally settles onto the chamber floor, it will have a continental shelf and a continental slope. McGraw-Hill, , pp. Compressed solids, liquids, and gases store energy.

Springs are common examples. If the compressed material is rock, D will be small, but F will be huge. The product of the two could be very large. Just before the rupture, the strain energy in the crust would have been about 1. The released energy, as the Mid-Oceanic Ridge sprung upward, was about 10 33 ergs.

Only a small fraction of this energy was needed to form mountains. In International Standard Units, a 1-megaton hydrogen bomb releases 4. Two of the most violent volcanic eruptions in modern times, Tambora in and Krakatau in , released about 8. Prentice-Hall, , p. Pillars places where the crust sagged slightly and touched the chamber floor did provide resistance, but only initially. Sliding pillar bases would have instantly become hot liquid magma, which is itself slick.

As the Mid-Oceanic Ridge rose, its surface stretched in two perpendicular directions. Because rock is weak in tension, two types of cracks grew, each perpendicular to a direction of stretching.

Both types of cracks are shown in Figures 44 , 65 , 64 f, and One can also feel this type of stretching by grabbing a phone book firmly in both hands and arching it. The outer cover is placed in tension. The other type of stretching was along the ridge axis. Each type of crack began as a microscopic opening with stress concentrations at both ends.

As the ridge rose, both types of cracks grew perpendicular to each other. Cracks along the ridge axis, called axial rifts, began at different locations along the ridge crest. Later, flank rifts, also parallel to the ridge axis, formed farther down the flanks of the ridge. Axial rifts formed before flank rifts because the greatest curvature, and therefore, greatest tension, occurs at the ridge crest. Rifts stopped growing when they ran into the perpendicular cracks called fracture zones.

However, fracture zones never ran into axial rifts, because fracture zones always began at the crest, where the ridge was farthest from the center of the earth. This is due to cooling and thermal contraction, and it accounts for much earthquake activity along the ridge. As the ridge rose, hundreds of short axial rifts began growing at different places along the rupture path. The more the ridge rose, the longer and wider these cracks became.

This created a line of bending weakness, which caused the ridge to rise symmetrically with the axial rift. In general, each axial rift did not align with the next axial rift, so segments of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge are offset from each other at fracture zones. Figures A1—A3 illustrate the growth of fracture zones shown in red and the formation of the offset pattern all along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge.

Lengthening axial rifts also explain overlapping spreading centers OSCs , where two portions of the ridge axis overlap. Macdonald and Fox, who first reported on OSCs, demonstrated how the overlaps occur. The block was then pulled perpendicular to both cuts, causing adjacent cuts to grow slightly past each other. Overlapping ends then turned toward each other. OSCs contradict the plate tectonic theory.

Another test of the hydroplate theory vs. According to the hydroplate theory, fracture zones are tension cracks formed when the ridge suddenly rose and was stretched parallel to the ridge axis. The cracks grew from the surface downward, so their profiles should be V-shaped or trough-shaped.

The plate tectonic theory says that a fracture zone formed by horizontal shearing. These two predictions were jointly made on April 30, with the late Robert S. Dietz, one of the developers of the plate tectonic theory. Bob Dietz and I then set out to learn the actual shape of fracture zones.

Water-saturated sediments, shown in red and yellow layers in Figure a above, are much less dense than the crystalline rock below the ocean floor. Therefore, only Figure a explains the large absence of mass along fracture zones. The true profiles confirm the hydroplate prediction.

Meyerhoff and Howard A. Assessments and Reassessments , editor Charles F. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, , p. This exercise produced two other surprising confirmations of the hydroplate theory. First, the actual fracture zones were trough-shaped near the ridge axis where the fractures should be deepest.

At the ends of fracture zones, the profiles were V-shaped. The second surprise was the presence of undeformed, layered sediments inside fracture zones. If opposite sides of a fracture zone are sliding past each other, as plate tectonics claims, sediments caught between the sliding plates would be highly deformed.

Plate tectonic theory predicts and, some textbooks erroneously claim, that earthquakes in fracture zones occur only between the two offset ridge axes, where the plates, according to plate tectonics, are moving in opposite directions. To the contrary, earthquakes occur all along fracture zones, as the hydroplate theory predicts.

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However, as the outer earth slipped over the outer core, the core applied a torque on the outer earth from inside. I will be driving my personal car with my wife and daughter. That which was inside or bordering on coal would likely not be able to escape.

grand canyon relative dating exercise

But excess argon is commonly invoked by geologists to explain dates that are too old, so I'm not inventing anything new.

grand canyon relative dating exercise

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