Prostitution in China - Wikipedia

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Writer Lavina Melwani described a happy marriage which had been arranged by the bride's father, and noted that during the engagement, the woman was allowed to go out with him before they were married on only one occasion; the couple married and found happiness. Not only that they also fund left wing organization in west to undermine christinity. After the movie, Finney and I took Helen home to her mother, They just dressed and showed up for the wedding ceremony.

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Nor can it be traced to the classical Indian languages, such as Sanskrit or Tamil. Thank you and many blessings to all. Information about human sexuality grew, and with it an acceptance of all types of sexual orientations is becoming more common. Few of you may be aware that there are hundreds of yoga manuscripts at least are available unpublished. EnGendering Hong Kong society: Sivananda was a prolific author, writing over books on yoga, and established nine ashrams and numerous yoga centers located around the world.

Electronic Journal of Sociology. No Dating, No Relationships". The New York Times. What our grandmothers told us about playing hard to get is true. Internet dating on the rise". Jacobson February 7, More than 60 years later, would that special girl remember me?

After the movie, Finney and I took Helen home to her mother, The problem with most dating rules, They make a game and a chore out of something that should be natural and fun and overwhelming. If you are rejected or ignored, remember that it is not about you. Don't focus on one person Using the Internet as a means of connecting to others. Online or off, couples still have to click". New Berkeley research shows that online daters like each other more before they actually meet in person—it's that first face-to-face where things slide downhill, and average daters report disappointment across the board, let down on everything from looks to personality.

From traditional to cutting-edge, Carlene Thomas-Bailey introduces a handful of ways to meet your match". Blind dates, classified ads, dating websites, hobbies, holidays, office romance, social networking, speed dating In fact, the smarter you are, the more clueless you will be, and the more problems you're going to have in your dating life. Here were smart, funny, good-looking guys surrounded by single women who were dying to be asked out — and not a whole lot was happening.

Lee February 2, Keep it simple by going for coffee or after-work drinks. A new book postulates that women who go through 34 dates should find true love around number To believe love is just a numbers game would leave the bravest of us questioning, why even play? Disappointment can create discouragement affecting other areas of our lives.

Too many one-off dates that go nowhere can leave the best of us ready to hang up the little black dress in exchange for a pair of pjs and a pint of you know what. First of all, my recommendation is to be ready and to be authentic. The most appealing kind of email to send is friendly, funny and flattering, Don't write a tome or reveal too much, and don't suggest meeting up right away. There is, however, an unwritten rule in the internet dating world that it is acceptable to ignore mail from people who don't interest you.

A no-reply policy is often the result of experience. Donovan says he has collected information on more than businesses worldwide that offer dating coach services -- with almost of those operating in the U. Americans who are seeking romance use the internet to help them in their search, but there is still widespread public concern about the safety of online dating". The copulatory gaze, looking lengthily at a new possible partner, Most internet users who are married or in committed relationships met each other offline.

A majority of relationship-seeking singles say it is difficult to meet people where they live. People who met 20, 25 or 30 years ago were more likely to mention co-workers," he says, and people who met in the past 10 years "were less likely to mention co-workers. The people you interact with most are your coworkers, but office dating is far from ideal.

A bad date will lead to workplace awkwardness, at the very least. Online Dating by the Numbers". In the world of online dating, women seek a partner of their age or older who has a high-paying job or has money. And he must be well-educated. The problem is that men usually have one universal definition of what is attractive and you need to fit that in order to be considered hot , far more than women do, A study by psychology researchers Smith February 8, Why Happiness Eludes the Modern Woman excerpts ".

Or as Bill Maher more crudely but usefully summed it up Men want women to shut up. Retrieved February 29, How to recognize the good from the bad and move on". I find the majority of time, it's because of a fear of intimacy," said relationship therapist Laura Berman. For many of us, the requisite vulnerability and exposure that comes from being really intimate with someone in a committed sense is kind of threatening.

I knew it even before the publication of "The Rules," a dating bible that encouraged women to return to prefeminist mind games by playing hard to get The Rules centres on the premise that "men are born to respond to challenge.

Take away challenge and their interest wanes", and thus followers are instructed to suppress their natural instincts and continue as follows: Instead, he seemed to assume it was because I was busy, popular, and had better things to do. Which seemed to make him keener. When we went on dates, I would always be the one to leave. To my astonishment, he often took that as a cue to ask me out again.

Today, women have gone back to hunting their quarry — in person and in cyberspace — with elaborate schemes designed to allow the deluded creatures to think they are the hunters. Copage June 6, Centers for Disease Control. Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence Lutz told the boys that among high school girls surveyed from the ages of 14 to 18, about 20 percent reported that they had been hit, slapped, shoved or forced into sexual activity by a dating partner.

Wikipedia tells us that domestic violence To begin with, it is important that someone knows where you are. Can apps and algorithms lead to true love? Yet some researchers say dating companies' matchmaking algorithms are no better than Chance for providing suitable partners. At the same time, critics worry that the abundance of prospective dates available online is undermining relationships Courtship may be completely left out in case of arranged marriages where the couple doesn't meet before the wedding.

There are four types of marriage among the Nyangatom marriage by arrangement, by the couple's mutual consent by abduction and by inheritance. Most Chinese university women can agree on one thing: The Internet QQ chat room is challenging traditional dating agencies It boasts 23 million registered users As China's expatriate population grows, many foreign women looking for love are saying this is the wrong place to meet Mr Right.

Every year as Singles' Day approaches, thousands of college students and young working people post messages November 11 has gradually become China's Singles' Day Sex harmful to middle schoolers". Sex among middle school students may be contributing to growing sterility problems among young women in Guangzhou, Forty-year-old migrant worker Li Hai thought his chance to get-rich-quick had arrived when he saw the tabloid advertisement: Archived from the original on 2 August Until recently, Indian marriages Patel still believes arranged marriages are a good idea: He entered into an unhappy arranged marriage with a Parsi widow with two children.

Eventually, I would agree to an arranged marriage with a man I would never love. But forever I would remember that afternoon at the canal and the possibility of love. A Memoir with Recipes by Shoba Narayan". This custom is not about to vanish any time soon, Dating websites choose whether to accept or reject potential users based on the preliminary information provided.

In doing so, a safer online community is supposedly created. Archived from the original on 22 January Academy of Korean Studies. There is a whole generation of children of the 70s — like me — who never had any useful dating advice from our liberated mums beyond My self-esteem was on the floor and I had no idea what to do about it: Can newly-single and clumsy-with-women Henry Castiglione master the fine art of flirting in one weekend?

I needed to learn some new moves, so I signed up for a weekend flirting course. In the United Kingdom, a poll of 3, engaged or married couples resulted in an average duration between first meeting and accepted proposal of marriage of 2 years and 11 months, This we havent agreed upon! Freunde, Bar, Arbeit — und Internet". Retrieved 24 May A Muslim cleric runs Iran's first officially sanctioned internet dating agency". Archived from the original on 26 November A 'Stray Bullet' lands in Cairo".

I also learned of the third-date rule — the most central and widely recognised of all dating rules — which decrees that there should be no sex until the third date,.. Why Happiness Eludes the Modern Woman book excerpt ". The New York Times: Now the Thinking Gal's Subject: The writer Emily Witt in the woods near her family's home in rural New Hampshire, where she often retreats to write".

Retrieved August 29, At 30, the writer Emily Witt found herself single and heartbroken The effects of sexual timing on marriage relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, 24 6 , The western practice of dating is clearly out, and according to Islamic tradition, a Muslim can only marry another Muslim For me, the main difference between Brazilians and Americans is that you are less dependent when it comes to family.

Kenrick June 9, A few puzzles about homosexuality, some still unsolved". Hannah Pool was a matchmaking cynic — until she was set up with her current partner four years ago. So what advice does she have for potential matchmakers? The most important rule is to make sure the people involved actually want to be set up; Match brains as well as beauty, and don't forget about religious and political views.

Sure, opposites sometimes attract but more often than not they repel. Meeting through friends was also commonly cited by those in the National Health and Social Life Survey, co-directed by sociologist Edward Laumann of the University of Chicago. That survey questioned 3, adults ages 18 to Even parents approve, because young people get to know each other — without physical contact! Parents get to check the details important to them and the couple can connect at many levels.

While parents and family members post the resumes of a prospective bride or groom, Researchers found that in smaller groups, people trade off different qualities in prospective mates — physical attractiveness for intelligence.

But faced with too much choice, however, they resort to crude approaches such as choosing solely on looks. Online dating is a great way to meet people, but the first face-to-face date may provide a surprising new perspective". Retrieved November 17, Retrieved November 2, Online dating seems pretty effective and, apart from the easily-identified weirdos and psychos, pretty fun. So the question is Internet dating has became mainstream. We estimate that about 18 percent -- almost 1 in 5 -- of those who are single and have access to the Internet have used Internet dating," As a member of the online dating world, I can attest that there is a frequent disconnect between who people say they are and the truth.

What's most frustrating is not the outright lying but the masterful deception. Online daters tend to identify with more liberal social attitudes, compared with all Americans or all internet users. Dating Web site eTourage seeks to find more love". The site then creates a double or a group date with sets of mutually interested couples Morris, Falling in Love Again: According to a Centers of Disease Control CDC report, approximately 72 percent of 8th and 9th graders report that they are "dating.

Rosenfeld says what surprised him was that people over 30 were the ones who met partners online — rather than the twentysomethings he had expected. The hookup — that meeting and mating ritual that started among high school and college students — is becoming a trend among young people who have entered the workaday world.

After the sexual revolution of the s and s, this "old-fashioned" form of dating waned in popularity In recent years, a number of college newspapers have featured editorials where students decry the lack of "dating" on their campuses Mongolian women work as prostitutes in bars in Beijing, [54] [55] such as Maggie's.

In China, Eastern Europeans and Russians make up most of the white prostitutes. Bars in major Chinese cities offer blonde, blue-eyed Russian "hostesses". During the 19th century [67] and in contemporary times, Portuguese prostitutes have operated in Macau. Some Chinese triad members from Macau married Portuguese prostitutes before China took it back from Portugal, providing them with access to Portuguese citizenship.

By there were about White Russian prostitutes in Shanghai. Today, many European prostitutes in China market themselves as escorts to attract the attention of visiting businessmen and richer Chinese clients. They may work independently or through an escort agency and advertise their services through the internet.

In Shanghai many Russian women work as prostitutes. In Harbin there are Russian prostitutes and African students patronize them. China is a recipient of Vietnamese prostitutes. They provide sex mainly to Chinese men. Vietnamese women working as prostitutes in China have been trafficked from Vietnam through various means at the Guangxi border.

On the Chinese border with Vietnam, in the Chinese town of Po-chai, a "Vietnamese girl market" made out of Vietnamese prostitutes offers sex to Chinese men exclusively and refuses service to Vietnamese men.

Every year, thousands of women from Kenya, Rwanda or Uganda are ending up in the brothels of China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of China and subject to different laws: This has led to a higher incidence of prostitution in these regions than in mainland China. Women travel from mainland China to Hong Kong and Macau in order to engage in the trade. There are also allegations of women being trafficked for the purpose.

Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew — and Katharine Caroline Bushnell 5 February January 26, , who wrote extensively on the position of women in the British Empire, wrote about the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position in the prostitution industry, catering towards foreign sailors. The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese, being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways.

They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong [86] The Tanka in Hong Kong were considered "outcasts" categorized low class. Ordinary Chinese prostitutes were afraid of serving Westerners since they looked strange to them, while the Tanka prostitutes freely mingled with western men. The Tanka prostitutes were considered to be "low class", greedy for money, arrogant, and treating clients with a bad attitude, they were known for punching their clients or mocking them by calling them names.

The stereotype among most Chinese in Canton that all Tanka women were prostitutes was common, leading the government during the Republican era to accidentally inflate the number of prostitutes when counting, due to all Tanka women being included. Tanka women were ostracized from the Cantonese community, and were nicknamed "salt water girls " ham shui mui in Cantonese for their services as prostitutes to foreigners in Hong Kong.

Tanka women who worked as prostitutes for foreigners also commonly kept a "nursery" Tanka girls specifically for exporting them for prostitution work to overseas Chinese communities such as in Australia or America, or to serve as a Chinese or foreigner's concubine.

A report called "Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: The Manchu traveller Qi-yi-shi reported the presence of prostitution among Torghut and Khoshut women in the Karasahr area of Xinjiang in In late 19th and early 20th century Turpan , Islamic modesty meant that Muslim prostitutes would not bare their bodies to clients in the way that Chinese prostitutes did.

The only women in Xinjiang at that time not to wear headscarfs were prostitutes from the poorest social classes. Hunter noted that the poverty of the Turki Muslims Uyghurs resulted in them selling their daughters, and that the practice led to Xinjiang containing significant numbers of Turki prostitutes. Temporary marriage , in the form of the Sunni Muslim misyar marriage "traveller's marriage" contract, is a practice that has sometimes been used as a cover for a form of prostitution.

It allowed a man to marry a woman for a week or even a couple of days, with "the mulla who performs the ceremony arranging for the divorce at the same time".

Such a marriage was forbidden by the Koran, and the Turki Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang called it a " marriage of convenience ". After the restoration of Chinese rule in the late 19th century it was common for Chinese soldiers and civilians in the Yarkand area of Xinjiang, including high officials, to take temporary wives, often without a marriage ceremony. Most of the wives came from Khotan. When the Chinese returned to China proper, their wives were abandoned or sold to friends.

The frequent marriages of Chinese men to Muslim Turki women in Xinjiang from occurred despite the fact that Islamic law forbids Muslim women from marrying non-Muslims, and that the Turki community considered such women to be prostitutes. Some foreign commentators suggested that the women involved were motivated by poverty, as such marriages prevented the women from being subject to the tax on prostitution.

Chinese police categorise prostitution practices according to a descending hierarchy of seven tiers, though this typology does not exhaust the forms of practices that exist. While they are all classified as prostitutes, the services they offer can be very different. Within some tiers, for example, there is still some revulsion to the acts of anal sex and oral sex. In parallel with the wide range of backgrounds for prostitutes, male buyers of sex also come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds.

According to the local police, in China there are seven categories of prostitutes: The first and second tiers have become the focus of heated public debate because they are explicitly linked to government corruption. In theory, the "three accompaniments" are chatting, drinking and dancing with their clients. In practice, the "three accompaniments" more often refers to dancing with, drinking with, and being publicly groped by their clients. These women often begin by allowing their clients to fondle or intimately caress their bodies, then if the client is eager, will engage in sexual intercourse.

The lowest two tiers are characterised by a more straightforward exchange of sex for financial or material recompense. They are neither explicitly linked to government corruption, nor directly mediated through China's new commercial recreational business sector.

Women who sell sex in the lowest two tiers usually do so in return for small sums of money, food and shelter. The PRC rejects the argument that prostitution is an unremarkable transaction between consenting individuals and that prohibition laws constitute a violation of civil liberties. Overall, the PRC's legal response to prostitution is to penalise third party organisers of prostitution. Participants in the prostitution transaction are still usually penalised according to the Chinese system of administrative sanctions , rather than through the criminal code.

Until the s, the subject of prostitution was not viewed as a major concern for the National People's Congress. The PRC's first criminal code, the Criminal Law and the Criminal Procedure Law of made no explicit reference to the activities of prostitutes and prostitute clients.

Prostitution only became a distinct object of statutory classification in the early s. Responding to requests from the Ministry of Public Security and the All-China Women's Federation , the National People's Congress passed legislation that significantly expanded the range and scope of prostitution controls: The PRC's revised Criminal Law of retains its abolitionist focus in that it is primarily concerned with criminalising third-party involvement in prostitution.

For the first time the death penalty may be used, but only in exceptional cases of organising prostitution activities, involving additional circumstances such as repeated offences, rape, causing serious bodily injury , etc.

The criminal code codified provisions in the Decision, establishing a system of controls over social place, specifically places of leisure and entertainment. Government intervention in commercial recreation has found concrete expression in the form of the "Regulations concerning the management of public places of entertainment". The provisions proscribe a range of commercial practices that characterise the activities of female "hostesses". As a result of strong calls to curb official corruption, during the mid to late s, a whole host of regulations were also introduced to ban government employees both from running recreational venues and from protecting illegal business operations.

Following the introduction of these measures, the Chinese media has publicised numerous cases of government officials being convicted and disciplined for abusing their positions for prostitution. Despite the position of the law, prostitutes are often treated as quasi-criminals by the Ministry of Public Security.

Chinese police conduct regular patrols of public spaces , often with the support of mass-line organisations, using a strong presence as a deterrence against prostitution.

Because lower tier prostitutes work the streets, they are more likely to be apprehended. Arrests are also more likely to be female sellers of sex than male buyers of sex. The overwhelming majority of men and women who are apprehended are released with a caution and fine. In response, sellers and buyers of sex have adopted a wide range of tactics designed to avoid apprehension. The spatial mobility which is afforded by modern communications systems, such as mobile phones and pagers , and by modern forms of transportation, such as taxis and private cars , has severely reduced the ability of police to determine exactly who is engaged in acts of solicitation.

In tandem with the long-term task of developing preventative policing, the much more visible form of policing have been periodic police-led campaigns. Anti-prostitution campaigns have been accompanied by nationwide "media blitzes" to publicise the PRC's laws and regulations. This is typically followed by the announcement of arrest statistics, and then by sober official statements suggesting that the struggle to eliminate prostitution will be a long one. The use of campaigns has been criticised for their reliance on an outdated "ideological" construction and an equally outmoded campaign formula of the s.

The primary target of the PRC's prostitution controls throughout the s has been China's burgeoning hospitality and entertainment industry. These culminated in the "strike hard" campaigns of late and Whilst such campaigns may have failed to eradicate prostitution in toto , there is some evidence that regulation of China's recreational venues has helped to create a legitimate female service worker with the right to refuse to engage in practices repugnant to the "valid labour contract", as well as the right to be free from sexual harassment in the workplace.

Chinese police have, however, proven unable to effectively police higher tier prostitution practices. The nature of concubinage and second wife practices makes it more suited as a target of social action campaigns rather than conventional police action. Because of social changes, for example, Chinese police are now professionally constrained not to intrude on people's personal relationships in an overt or coercive manner.

In some areas, "massage parlours" on main streets are known full well to be brothels, but are generally left to function without hindrance, barring occasional raids. The illegal activities and problems associated with prostitution had led some to believe that there would be benefits if prostitution was legalized. A number of international NGOs and human rights organisations have criticised the PRC government for failing to comply with the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women , accusing PRC of penalising and abusing lower tier prostitutes, many of whom are victims of human trafficking, while exonerating men who buy sex, and ignoring the ongoing problems of governmental complicity and involvement in the sex trade industry.

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women. However, it does not advocate a system of legal and regulated prostitution. Central guidelines laid down by the CPC do not permit the public advocacy of the legalisation of prostitution.

Arguments concerning legalisation are not absent, however, from mainland China. On the contrary, some commentators contend that legally recognising the sex industry, in conjunction with further economic development, will ultimately reduce the number of women in prostitution. While prostitution controls have been relaxed at a local level, [ citation needed ] there is no impetus for legalisation at the central government level. Importantly, legalisation does not have much public support.

These include the lack of independent trade unions , and limited access of individuals to civil redress with regard to occupational health and safety issues. The spread of prostitution practices has introduced a large quantity of slang to the popular vocabulary. Since then, many more western and Indian teachers have become pioneers, popularizing hatha yoga and gaining millions of followers. Hatha Yoga now has many different schools or styles, all emphasizing the many different aspects of the practice.

Timothy has studied and taught many styles of yoga and has completed a hour Advanced Pranakriya Yoga training. Timothy has been serving as the Executive Director of YogaBasics. He has authored two yoga books and has written over articles on the practice and philosophy of yoga. Timothy is also the creator of Japa Mala Beads and has been designing and importing mala beads since Perception The Third Chakra: Power The Second Chakra: Amazing how you can talk about honey and not mention the beehive or the bees.

Yoga is a Sanskirt word, correctly pronounced as Yog. Not to say that anybody who wants to benefit from the practice needs to acknolwedge or even be bothered about the the religious affiliation, but when you write hundreds of words on its history without mentioning the connection, it smacks of disingenuity, something decidedly non-Yogic.

I agree with you. But also do not expect from opportunists the recognition for benefiting from features of Hindu culture. Rabi, I completely agree with you. Yoga and Hindusim are like two sides of the same coin. That is because the Vedas and Upanishads are the foundation for both yoga and Hinduism. They are linked and share a common history and culture, but they are not part of each other. We respect your opinion, but please take your judgements somewhere else. Timothy, A history of…lets just say gospels…without mentioning Christianity?

Vedas and Upanishads are more central to Hinduism than gospels are to Christianity. I grew up chanting Vedas and reading Vagvat Geeta Upanishad to my blind grandfather. Yoga is a gift that anybody can enjoy with a dose of any narrative that makes it palatable.

My family celebrates the spirit of Christmas, enjoys good gospel singing, and hunts for eggs during Easter. Hence, I humbly submit that dating Yoga according to our prsent day Calender may be futile.

Please add to my knowledge if what I have said is not correct or erroneous. In quest of the Truth, Kamini,. You do, curiously, illustrate my point, by mentioning Shiva and Parvati. Shiva makes up the trio of divinity in Hinduism. The point of my comments is the fact that Yoga is entirely a Hindu pratice by origin , in that it is a tradition inspired by and contained in Hindu philosopy…and carried forward by Hindus alone until recent times.

Therefore, to say Yoga did not originate in Hinduism is a feeble play on words. To fail to mention its Hindu origin while telling its history is to start new yogis on an ignorant path. A truth, however unomfortable, remains the truth. By suppressing it, you only subtract from the true meaning of yoga. The dates are given to give context and a sequence to the unfolding of the yoga tradition. You cannot say that Hinduism existed prior to the Vedas.

Also many of the early Christian texts are also intertwined with the Jewish texts, which according to your logic would make Christianity an entirely Jewish practice. As a testimony to the complexiity of human thought, personal as well as professional practice of Yoga can coexist with wholesale diminutive and derogatory view of the religion that originated and carried it for centuires. This is my purely personal and totally arguable explanation for the increasing necessity for distancing of Yoga from Hinduism as the practice gets to the larger masses in the West.

Branding is after all not an exercise in brutal and awkward truth. If anybody is interested in learning of the roots of Yoga, I encourage them to look further than glib explanations developed over time by many, to be fair; this is nothing recent that serve as much to obfuscate as much to illuminate. Wikipedia is not a bad start. Elixir of life is to be accepted even if comes from poison, a piece of gold is to be accepted even from impurity. A good conduct is to be learnt even from an enemy and a good lady is to be accepted even from a bad community.

Ha, did I just reinforce the perception I deplored? Let me try a different one disclaimer: But for broad minded people, whole earth is like their family. The exact date is unknown but it all depends upon what it is. I do not say, that it does not originate from shivkaal, but there is no proof that it does either. If you are not open to discussing this topic using facts and reason then please do not continue this conversation. It is not only disrespectful to disregard the history of Hinduism in yoga.

What do you think Indus originated from? The Hindu people who live there. What a joke you are. Typical colonial white dude speak. Any further posts from you that violate our comment guidelines will be deleted. There is no evidence that Hinduism was practiced or invented by the Indus Valley Civilization.

Yoga is a spiritual practice like prayer and Hinduism is a religion. They share similar aspects and philosophies, but were developed as separate practices. If you disagree with this viewpoint please cite any modern yoga research to back up your claims. Why are these argumentative people on your site? What a waste of time and oxygen on their part to argue their nonsense. Maybe they should try something else like, get a job?

Practiced by first religion of earth i. These religions cater to a fraction of Hinduism. Using for ur own benefits. Yoga had survived in India, is flourishing in India and will survive till eternity. I am sharing these things because if you preach these things to westerners. Tell the whole story. The reality is when you do yoga, pranayama and dhyana, you become much more aware of your body, breath and how it functions.

You start understanding the workings of your mind, how desires arise, understand your otherwise compulsive behaviours. That is why it is said to lead to self-realization. Self-realization is needed for all humans because it sets them free and a great way to live life. I would normally hesitate very much to introduce a new faith to other parts of the world even if I feel my faith seems to work well.

But Yoga is more of self-discovery and not based much on faith — but because of the culture and faith it arose from a particular geographical location, it probably has some colors of faith attached as part of evolution. If the western world is fully healthy and have other effective means for self-realization, there would not be a need for talking about Yoga in the west and all these altercations.

So, when we start a fight, we need to understand many dimensions of the issue involved. I understand that there is a need for Yoga in the world and that is the reason it is being advocated. There is a lot of learning that the East is learning from the West too. I learn a lot of attitude and communication from my western customers. They are kind of Guru to me in this aspect. Timothy, I see great value in the Yoga practice that includes the eight limbs.

I am a devote Christian and I transfer my Christian beliefs on to my Yoga practice to gain the health, mental, physical and spiritual benefits. Yoga has been redeemed for my purposes. My hope that whomever wants to claim Yoga is from their heritage be tickled and grateful that others can benefit.

Timothy Hinduism existed long before Jainism and bhudism were even formed so you cannot say Yoga is originally generated from Hinduism. This is just a conspiracy against Hinduism many foreigners fooled innocent people of India and looted us in the past still we foolishly follow the latest trends from the west. I realize that my argument is not with you really, but with a popular western view constructed over time. So, I thank you for engaging in this conversation and wish you luck.

I grew up with Yoga around me, but never got into it much. I am getting started and your site is a good resource. Rabi, I need to write a paper for a class on the origins of yoga. It seems you know your stuff. Would you mind pointing me in the right direction? That would be great. Thimothy, I agree with you that the principles of yoga existed in the Indian sub-continent before Vedas and Upanishads. What we call Hinduism is an amalgamation of yogic principles; especially of Yama and Niyamas and the other philosophies.

Hinduism has many contrasting features from yogic principles. Many ayurvedic texts openly endorses practices like the consumption of meat including beef.

It is not also against polygamy as well. I would love to use this brief history as a handout for my teacher trainees. Do you have a pdf version to print, so that we can source your work. I think this is a nice overview for a brief section on the history portion of the training and will encourage students to take advanced trainings in history if they so desire.

Please email me privately. Let me know if that would be ok. I am wanting to know the exact date this article was published. I am having difficulty finding this information.

Thanks for any clarification! Chelsea — this current version dates back to Nov 26, , but the original version of this article would have been published sometime in or My respectful greetings to you for your website on yoga with some ideas of its origins.

The discussion on whether its origins are Hindu or not is not really essential. The term Hindu originated as the designation of the people living along the banks of the river Sindhu referred to as Indus by the Greeks. The land was referred to as Hind, later India. Greek historians have written of how Alexander interacted with yogis while on his retreat along the Indus valley.

So it is clear that Hindus, as a people, practiced yoga for thousands of years. The term Hinduism is a colonial construct to include the many practices and beliefs of the Hindu people. Hope this serves to clarify the historical connections. The contact page indicated that I need to leave a message on this page, but I will also send a message through the contact page. If given permission, I will ensure credit to Timothy is given. Have an incredible day! I arrived at this site, hoping to begin my understanding of Yoga Practices…..

I had no other preconceived ideas on the subject. I will do further study…. Please know that there are a few nationalistic Hindus who are actively trying to claim that you must be a Hindu in order to practice yoga.

This is a small group of people with strong political motives and I doubt they actually practice or study yoga. I encourage you to read other scholarly discussions on the origins and history of yoga to confirm the facts presented on this website. Namaste Timothy Burgin, I read all the connection of replies and topic of the conversation.

The origin of YOG, is 4 pre-Vedic literature practice. It was codified through hymns, and spiritual songs and chantings, than Varanasi born Patanjali codified in Aphorism ,which was to have our own direction experience and perception of that practice ,later on it was very limited and only privileged to Brahmins and Arhankaras. Consciousness can be unfair and cruel and even sad and mad — look at the baby animals eaten by other animals higher in the food chain — or the venus fly trap and its carnivorous appetite for flys.

Reality is always the same no matter how these people debate about it. Its ok to not have the same views or recollections of the past. After all, it was once us in spirit — its just we can only experience one body-mind conscious at a time in most cases — although Im sure there are gurus who can enter other realms of the matter time space connection.

Does it really matter the history of Yoga? After all do we have a past really or is it merely a matter of collected thoughts too difficult for out distracted minds. Buddhist do it and so do Hindus and so do Christians — its evolved into a self love practice not a debate topic about our feeble attempts to understand something so scared and connecting. Westerns are as much allowed to practice and teach Yoga as a scared practice as long as we leave commonly practiced entitled western directions and egos out.

Who holds the final authority on matter related to Christianity. Most of the time Vatican or by the people who are Christian by faith. Similarly for Islam Muslim holds the final and most credible authority.

Most authentic sources for interpreting Judaism are by Jews people. But Hindus are not allowed do that for our religion. People say that history is written by the winner. They wrote indian history using their colonist mindset. They tried to create a identity for hindus so that Hindus become subservient to them. As a result many of the hindus actually have become subservient to western indeas,beliefs and culture.

They want approval from west. Hindus are also plagued by Fake yogis,baba and fake Goodman who uses Hinduism for name, fame and power. So they dilute hindu identity to gain acceptance in west. Historically powerful countries like England,france ,spain,America have favoured Christian worldview. Islam has always been powerful. Even today very rich counties like Saudi arab,uae,Qatar are muslim nation they fund various institutes like ngos,news channel,news paper,magazine,educational institutes,gives grants for research in Islamic studies to university for proper representation of islam.

Not only that they also fund left wing organization in west to undermine christinity. Jews may be less in number but historically have been very powerful and rich. There are only 3 Hindu majority countries. There are 0 country which favor Hindu world view. Hindus are very disorganized. There are very few institutes which represents Hinduism to the world. Indian intellectual space is filled by leftwing Marxist type because the are given credibility by western intellectuals and sometime funded by them.

Anyone who speaks for hindus is branded as nationalist and fascist. West is increasingly becoming more hindu on its own but they are afraid of coming out. It is like using and liking I phone but hiding the apple branding on the back of your phone because you are prejudice against apple product. In lay man term why do we do yoga, meditation bcoz we think there is a god inside oneself and by yoga we connect to that god.

Now what is the difference between normal stretching, breathing exercise and yoga. What is the difference between normal concentratition, deconcentration, relaxation, deep relaxation exercise and mediation. The language of Sanskrit is very difficult to translate into different languages.

It is about being not understanding. Intellectual in west are somehow trying to digest hindu philosophy into western beliefs system. Hence emphasis of yoga not being part of Hinduism. Yoga is compatible with only Hindu philosophy and to a certain extend other dharmic religion. The way that this world functions is that the dominant culture, with its misguided confidence of its imagined superiority tries to keep the lesser culture in its place.

Marxist have done this all along that their way is the only way, every other way is flawed. By denying the agency for the lesser culture to speak they follow a cultural imperialism that leads to political and economic imperialism and enslaves the lesser culture. American academia has taken over from the British the imperial project and the English speaking Indians elite have remained clueless till to date.

Trying to disassociate yoga with Hinduism is symbol of cultural imperialism. I think I finally understand your confusion of thinking yoga is a Hindu religious practice. One does not need to worship or believe in a specific god to do yoga. Yoga was not intended to connect with a specific deity or god like Shiva or Kali, but I can see how a Hindu would believe this and conflate yoga with their religion.

Iam preecher of yoga. I wonder what Timothy Burgin thinks about the move by the student government at the University of Ottawa to ban the teaching of yoga by a young female instructor who has been offering free lessons to disabled and other students for the past 8 years or so. Hi Bill, thanks for pointing out that interesting news story.

We hindus do not mind people of other religion and culture doing yoga. Hatha yoga was given to us by lord shiva.

Hindu people have this image of lord shiva sitting on top of himalayas and doing pranayam,dhyan and yoga all day. Lord shiva is the ultimate yogi. Hindu poeple have been doing yoga for thousands of year.

One does not need to be a Hindu to practice yoga, and likewise one does not need to be a yogi to practice Hinduism. The fact that you keep equating yoga with spiritual as opposed to Hindu being a religion is the root cause of all the confusion.

The separation between spiritual domain and religious domain is purely a christian or an abrahamic concept.

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After all, it was once us in spirit — its just we can only experience one body-mind conscious at a time in most cases — although Im sure there are gurus who can enter other realms of the matter time space connection. I am interested to know more about it,, can you refer to me any article or sources.

dating practices in china

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